Tuesday, November 15, 2011

CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

Introduction
Based on Kamus Perdana (1997), culture means civilization, progress covering common sense way of life, ways of thinking and behavior, customs, beliefs, norms and values ​​shared by the members of the group. Culture depends on man's ability to learn and spread knowledge of this culture to the next generations.
Robbins (1996) defines organizational culture as a common perception that adopted by the members of the organization. Organizational culture includes the practices, beliefs, assumptions, principles, the legends and norms that affect how a person is thinking, making decisions and carrying out tasks within an organization.
Mohammed & Sagir (1998) defines organizational culture is a pattern of thoughts, feelings and reactions that exist in the organization or sub-its sector. The term refers to a system of shared meaning which refers to the values, beliefs, traditions, philosophy, heroes and regulations that are shared by members of the organization. Sharing these values ​​to determine what can be seen by the managers and how they respond to their world. When facing problems, organizational culture can limit what managers do by suggesting the right way or that by conceptualising, defining, analyzing and solving problems.
There are four key components of organizational culture. The first component is the values ​​that are basic beliefs that define the success of employees in the organization. The second component is the hero, individuals who embody the values ​​of the organization and serves as an example to other employees. The third component is the pomp and circumstance (practice) adopted by the company to show the workers what to do or what needs to be addressed. The fourth component is the cultural network is an informal communication within the organization.
Currently, there are no fixed steps to measure the organizational culture, but initial studies suggest that culture can be studied to assess an organization based on ten (10) features below: -
1) Individual Initiative-level responsibility, freedom and independence which is owned by an individual.
2) Risk Tolerance - The level at which employees are encouraged to be aggressive, innovative and courageous in the face of risk.
3) Direction - The level at which organizations develop performance objectives and expectations clear.
4) Integration - The level at which the units of the organization are encouraged to manage in a way coordination.
5) Management support - The level of communication which supplied managers, assistants and support to their subordinates.
6) Control - The law and order and the number of supervisors who are used to monitor and control the behavior of employees.
7) Identity - The extent to which the members recognized the organization as a group and not known for work or their respective professional fields.
8) Reward System - The level at which rewards such as salary increases and promotions are based on the employee's performance in services, prefer to work and so on.
9) Conflict tolerance - The extent to which employees are encouraged to give constructive feedback openly. 10) Communication - The level of an organization where communication is limited to the formal hierarchy of power.
Characteristics mentioned above are stable and remain at all times as an individual personality that is not easily changed from time to time.
Ansari (1990) have shown that organizational culture consists of eight (8) dimensions;
1) Structure - It means the employee's perception of the limitations of the situation and level of behavioral constraints in the organization.
2) Rewards - emphasis on the reward or penalty organizations to control employee behavior.
3) Responsibility - The level of organization allows employees to take on trust and responsibility.
4) Satisfaction - Refers to the satisfaction of emotional needs that are allowed within the organization.
5) Support - The level of organizational support of every member of the organization.
6) Standard - Refers to the kind of standards we set for the performance standards set by the organization to employees. 7) Conflict management - Refers to the strategies used by management to resolve conflicts. 8) Identity - Refers to the level of employees in the organization have the feeling with the organization.
Jensen et al. (2004) states that organizational culture is a system where an organization's members have values ​​and beliefs together to determine their behavior in the organization. Organizational culture determines the way an organization's members to act on matters.
Denison (1990) defines organizational culture as the underlying beliefs, values ​​and assumptions held by members of an organization as well as exemplary practices and behaviors and reinforce them.
Hansen & Wernerfelt (1989) states that organizational culture can influence how an individual goal setting and professional goals, tasks and manage resources to achieve its objectives. Organizational culture affect how a person think in a state of conscious and subconscious, make decisions and ultimately affect as one can see, feel and act.
For Deshpande & Farley (1999) defines organizational culture as a set of values, beliefs, polar-polar behavior of the organization's core identity and help shape the behavior of employees.
According to Christiansen (2000), culture is part of a set of unwritten rules. A company has rules but no companies have rules covering every situation a person will be. Sometimes a person will use their consideration. How they use is subject to the consideration of their faith in companies that hold them. What is required by the company are of the general statement of goals and principles provided by the stories and examples of Gupta & Govindarajan (2000) present a framework in which organizational culture has six components: organizational structure, information systems, people, reward systems, leadership and processes. Each component has dimensions respectively.
O'Reilly et al. (1991) has developed the organizational culture profile consisting of three components. The first component is to handle the work is divided into three-dimensional detail, stability and innovation. The second component is the organizational structure is divided into two dimensions and team-oriented relationship "interpersonal". The third component is the individual action is divided into two dimensions of outcome and aggressiveness.

Empirical Studies Related with Organization Culture and Performance
Boon, Arumugam, Vellapan, Yin & Wai (2006) has been conducting research / quantitative analysis of the relationship between organizational culture of employee job satisfaction in the health sector in Malaysia. The study was conducted on workers in four (4) health organizations in the state of Perak. The findings showed workers perceptions of organizational culture variables are significant and positive relationship of job satisfaction of employees. This study proves the high level of awareness of employees (5) dimensions of organizational culture support, emphasis on rewards, innovation-oriented performance, stability and communication, the more positive reaction to employee satisfaction. The study also showed support was the most dominant dimension of (5) dimensions of organizational culture and has a strong relationship with employee satisfaction. This study also supports previous findings by Lund (2003), Gray, Densten and Sarros (2003).
Mohammad & Arif (2000) have investigated the relationship between organizational culture and organizational work among Malaysia. The study was conducted in seven (7) private companies in Malaysia. The study has shown there is a relationship between organizational culture and commitment to work with the involvement of the organization. Relationship is positive and strong. These findings are also consistent with previous studies in which the role of organizational culture is to promote a positive work.
The findings also show that there are several dimensions of organizational culture that encourages efficiency and productivity of the workers in which in the end it allows organizations to achieve competitive advantage competitive. Thus the organizational culture should be monitored continuously so that the beliefs and values ​​shared by the members of the organization continues to evolve and ultimately management practices can facilitate a conducive work culture.
Rashid, Sambasivan & Johari (2002) has conducted studies on the influence of corporate culture and organizational commitment to the financial performance of Malaysian companies. The study has shown there is a connection between the corporate culture of commitment to the organization. Relationship is significant and positive impact on employee job satisfaction. The results of this study is very important implications for human resource development and motivate employees. This study also proves the corporate culture and organizational commitment have an impact and influence the company's financial performance. This means that the type of corporate culture and organizational commitment can be an important factor in determining the performance or success.
Lok & Crawford (2003) has conducted studies on the influence of organizational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of managers in various industries in Hong Kong and Australia. The study has shown managers from Australia has a "Mean Scores" higher variable organizational culture of innovation and support for job satisfaction and organizational commitment than managers from Hong Kong. For both samples, variables and innovation, support and thoughtful leadership style, a sense of having a positive influence on job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Bititci, Mendibil, Nudurupati, Garengo & Turner (2006) have investigated the dynamic relationship between performance evaluation, leadership style and organizational culture to provide a better understanding of the relationship between these three variables. The study was conducted in a "case study" of the five case study in which performance measurement system implemented in the action research program. The study has shown leadership styles and organizational culture are interdependent during the period under review the performance appraisal system. Leadership styles have evolved as the maturity of the performance appraisal system and the organizational culture to grow. The success of implementing and using performance appraisal system through changes in culture have shown leadership style "participative" and "Consultative". Use proper performance appraisal system to encourage the emergence of a culture of achievement. The findings of the five (5) cases have the authority of leadership is necessary at the beginning and it will change in line with cultural change.
Hui & Idris (2009) have investigated the relationship of absorption capacity, or "absorptive Capacity" of innovation and organizational culture as a moderating influence, or "moderating effect" in which multinational companies with MSC status. The findings have shown the development and dissemination of knowledge is very important to maintain the ability to innovate. this study proves the dissemination of knowledge and application of knowledge is significant in illustrating the ability of innovative companies. The study also found that the influence of "absorptive Capacity" on the ability to innovate and was moderated by the organizational culture.
Xavier (2007) has conducted research on cultural factors and economic factors in determining entrepreneurship in a diverse and developing country like Malaysia. The findings showed no significant correlation relationship between economic factors and cultural factors on entrepreneurial tendencies. This study proves for the Malays no correlation relationship between entrepreneurial tendency of economic factors and no significant correlation relationship between cultural factors with entrepreneurial tendencies. For the Chinese there is no significant correlation relationships between entrepreneurial tendency of economic factors, but there was a significant correlation relationship between cultural factors with entrepreneurial tendencies. For the Indians there is no significant correlation relationship of these two factors with entrepreneurial tendencies.
Ibrahim, Sejini & Qassimi (2006) has conducted research on the relationship between self-assessment of work performance and job satisfaction among public sector workers in the United Arab Emirates. The study showed that there was no significant relationship between self-assessment of performance with overall job satisfaction. Similarly, the "moderating variables" such as gender, marital status, period of service and position also appears to be no significant relationship. However, there is no significant relationship between self-assessment of performance, citizenship, place of salary and benefits, career development and the most important environment / working conditions (work environment).
Sanders (2007) have carried out a study on the use of personality traits (personality characteristics) that "The Big Five" to the selection of a good police officer and to anticipate the performance of police officers. "The Big Five" are 1) The nature extrovert 2) The nature of emotional 3) The nature of the agree and abide 4) The nature of openness 5) The nature of the moral consciousness. The study showed that age and attitude is "preditors" in anticipation of better police performance when compared with the "traits" personality. Age of police officers found to have non-linear relationship to job performance. While the work attitude of the "cynical" is negative in the "ratings" performance.
Organizational Culture: Polis Diraja Malaysia (PDRM)
Polis Diraja Malaysia (PDRM) is a combination of the Police Force which used to exist in isolation and has a history, tradition and culture respectively. Police history began in this country at March 25, 1807, when the Police Force was established in Penang when the British to enforce the Charter of Justice (Charter of Justice). As an enforcement institution with a history of 202 years, would the police have enough influence organizational culture and significant impact on its members. According to Mohammed & Sagir (1998) organizational culture can be understood as a way of thinking, feeling, perception, values, norms, activities, reactions and objectives of the organizations that exist in the organization. It is a unique program for a mental health organization which reflects the personality of the organization. Brown (1998) states that culture is a pattern of beliefs, values ​​and ways of learning with current experiences with the organization and it will be shown clearly in the determination of the actions and behavior of its members. According to Alauddin (2004) the practice and appreciation of the excellent work culture in this organization will be able to produce human workers who carry out their duties with full commitment, determination, loyalty, cooperation and integration. Through excellent organizational culture earlier, negative practices will be avoided, while the positive behavior can be improved to enable the organization achieve its goals on track. Positive work culture that drives the organization toward success namely as organizational culture. Organizational culture can be defined as a form of practice, conduct and action is agreed and understood by all people working with the organization. Culture is like fertilizer that nourishes the organization to produce fruit that can be used by the community.
On this day, the task of policing the kompleks3 and challenging, even more so in the near future. The rapid development in our country it is feeling and all the precise focus towards establishing Malaysia as a country fully developed by Vision 2020. Era of a globalized world without borders and development of information technology (ICT) has resulted in rapidly a new paradigm shift in the police force to improve the professionalism of the officers and members in order to fulfill the expectations of society.

Organizational Culture in PDRM
Rapid development has led policing tasks more challenging and difficult. Conduction challenge is increasing dramatically Index Crime Rate and complex types of crime, the threat of drug abuse is increasing due to the emergence of new synthetic drugs, the threat of racism and militant religious extremism, the threat of cyber terrorism and illegal immigrants. Pressure from human rights groups such as SUHAKAM, SUARAM, shouted, Bar Counsel and several other NGOs have demanded that police actions are according to the tenets of law and the Constitution.
Police as a law enforcement agency's most important in this country, based on duties and responsibilities as a "crime control" and "due process of law" is a measure of the quality of professionalism and performance in law enforcement.
Royal Commission to Enhance Operation and Management of Police was formed by the Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong on February 4, 2004 under the Commission of Inquiry Act 1950. Terms of Reference of the Commission is quite broad, ranging from the role and responsibilities of the Royal Malaysia Police to the organization, distribution and human resource development, human rights, procedures, operations and improvements and modernization of the police service in general. The findings from the inquiry, the Royal Commission's survey and feedback from the public are as follows: -
A total of 926 complaints and 316 proposals received by the Commission from members of the public as of March 2005. Twenty-two (22) the proposals received from officers and policemen. Complaints received many policing issues of concern to the public. One third of complaints (312 aduan@33.7%) people in connection with the case of the absence of follow-up on reports made by the police. A total of 191 complaints (20.6%) related to the abuse of power and almost half the complaints (186 complaints or 20.1%) of the inefficiency and lack of accountability. A total of 119 complaints (12.8%) related to poor public relations, 98 complaints (10.6%) of police corruption, and 20 complaints (2%) of deaths in police custody. (See Table 1).
Most of the suggestions from the public are related to human resources and logistics of the police. Another proposal is the matter of corruption, community policing, human rights aspects of policing and police body outside the browser. (See Table 1.2). Two surveys were conducted, one on the public perception of crime and police, and one among the police. Among the findings obtained in the first questionnaire survey (involving 575 public respondents) showed that most respondents ie 17.6% had been victims of crime in 2004. Somewhat among many respondents that 9 out of 10 "fear" and "extremely concerned" would be a crime. 4.7% of respondents "not satisfied" and "very dissatisfied" with security and a similar percentage of 43% "not satisfied" and "very dissatisfied" with the police. In relation to the survey of police is quite disturbing findings is that the awareness of corruption is very less among police personnel at all levels.





Table 1
Feedback Received by the Royal Commission to Enhance the Operations and Management   of PDRM   by Category    (As of March 2005)
BIL
CATEGORY
NUMBER OF FEEDBACK
TOTAL
LETTER
WEBSITE
Inquiry   PUBLIC
1.
No Follow Up
119
20
173
312 ( 33.7%)
2.
Abuse of Power
103
18
70
191 (20.6%)
3.
Not Efficient / No Accountability
75
16
95
186 ( 20.1%)
4.
Poor Public Relations
54
12
53
119 ( 12.8%)
5.
Corruption
33
20
44
98 (10.6%)
6.
Deaths in Detention
12
1
7
20 ( 2%)
7.
Proposal
72
135
109
316
TOTAL
468
223
 551
1242

Total index crimes for 2006, 2007 and 2008 are respectively 196.780 cases 211.645 209.582 cases and cases. We can see a sharp increase in index crimes from 2006 to 2007 was 12.802 cases or 6.5%, while the increase in crime index for 2007 to 2008 stood at 2063 cases, or 1%. The increase in index crimes drastically this course is the "indicator" that shows the level of police performance is unsatisfactory. (See Table 2).



TABLE 2
TOTAL INCREASE IN CRIMINAL CASES INDEX OF   2006,   2007 AND 2008
Crime Index (cases)
2006
2007
2008
Total (cases)
Crimes of Violence
31,408
35,159
37,817
104,384
Property Crime
165,372
174,423
173,828
513,623
Total Crime Index
196,780
209,582
211,645
618,007

Public Complaints Bureau of Statistics showed the PDRM is the government agency that received the highest complaint for three consecutive years ie 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively are 194 complaints, 206 complaints and 468 complaints. The increase in the number of complaints and the police are an agency that received the highest complaint would reflect the level of police performance is not satisfactory. (Please see Table 3).
TABLE 3
10 AGENCY OF THE MINISTRY OF RECEIVING HIGHEST COMPLAINT  FOR THE YEAR 2006, 2007 AND 2008
NO
AGENSI
TOTAL COMPLAINTS RECEIVED (YEAR)
TOTAL


2006
2007
2008
1.
POLIS DIRAJA MALAYSIA
194
206
468
868
2.
JABATAN PENDAFTARAN NEGARA
83
76
228
387
3.
JABATAN KERJA RAYA
159
126
224
509
4.
JABATAN IMIGRESEN
83
17
213
313
5.
JABATAN PENDIDIKAN NEGERI
164
97
191
452
6.
LEMBAGA PELESENAN KEDENRERAAN PERDAGANGAN
57
23
190
270
7.
TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD
183
114
181
478
8.
DEWAN BANDARAYA KUALA LUMPUR
108
85
168
361
9.
JABATAN PENGANGKUTAN JALAN
58
40
168
266
10.
BAHAGIAN PENGUATKUASA KPDNHEP
35
39
164
238

TOTAL   COMPLAINTS
1124
823
2195
4142

There are various factors that cause deterioration of the performance of police work or police work performance unsatisfactory. Among them is the vision, mission and strategic objectives of the police, the police leadership factors, the core strategy of the police, motivation, encouragement and rewards of the police force, the core values ​​and ethics of the police, police discipline and internal control and organizational culture. In this research into the organizational culture focus or concentration to undertake a study of the quantitative analysis of whether there is a relationship between organizational culture of performance at the PDRM.
The dominant organizational culture that support, emphasis on rewards, innovation, performance and stability-oriented and communication will continue to be the main guidelines and principles of all police officers and members to achieve excellent performance and meet the expectations of society.
Organizational culture is relevant to managers / police leadership as provide guidelines on what can be done and what can not be done. All perceptions, decisions and their views are based on organizational culture is practiced. So, whether consciously or unconsciously, to manage a manager / police leadership will always tend to adopt a culture of their organization.
Organizational culture will influence and impact on management functions such as planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The functions of planning, organizational culture will influence whether the pattern of planning long-term or short term, the extent to which risks will be taken and how any planning done.
In organizing an organization, organizational culture determines how much power to be revealed to the officers and members of his subordinates, the required level of freedom given in the work of employees and the extent to which policies and procedures will be enforced.
Organizational culture affects leadership style manager / police leadership in motivational techniques should be used, the appropriate leadership style and level of authority that can be implemented. In terms of control is external and internal enforcement decisions, decisions that should be emphasized control method or control the budget decisions are all influenced by the culture of an organization.
In other words, the organizational culture greatly influenced the course of police management for organizational culture is not only the direction of its own police force but is a core value that influence / motivate police work performance.


Conclusion
The main goal of this article is to see the relationship of organizational culture dimensions on job performance among officers and members of the PDRM. This literature study is also described several dimensions of organizational culture that can influence the performance of the dimensions of support, emphasis on rewards and innovation. It is hoped that this literature review will be used as a guide to improve services, quality of work and performance of officers and members of the PDRM. It is important to ensure that the services of the PDRM are proud to be a national platform on the organizational culture of excellence and then to the formation of a team, the customer first, preferred job performance will be a priority of the PDRM.

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