Wednesday, November 2, 2011


Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1  Introduction
What you want to explain in chapter one,

1.2  Background of the Research and Research Question
o       Historical development of the concept under study.
o       How the issue emerge
o       The problems with the issue under study

1.2 Problem Statement
Paragraph 1 – What is the problem? Why it is so important that research must be done?

Paragraph 2 – What is existing knowledge on the problem? What are the focuses of studies in the area?

Paragraph 3 – Where is the research gap, i.e. the difference between knowledge available and knowledge needed?

Paragraph 4 – What is proposed? What the research report want to do to address the research gap?

1.3 Research Question
“Propose a research question here”

1.4 Research Objectives

In point form, what does this research aims to achieve:

Write in this way:

  • To examine….
  • To understand…
  • To study…
  • To propose…

(Note: Bear in mind that the research objectives must be achieved by the end of the study)

1.5 Significance and Justifications for the Study

  • Why this study is so important?

  • How this study can fill up the knowledge gap

  • How this study can benefit the society through recommendations to government, NGOs, businesses, community etc?

1.6 Research Scope

Briefly explain the focus of this study and how the data is expected to be collected.

1.7  Definition of the Key Terms

Provide in the following format:

Key Terms
The important term used in the study. Normally are the variables used for the study
How the key term is defined. The definition must suit to the context of the study i.e. the available definition has to be modified so it can address the context of the study
In text citation format from where the definition is available.

1.8  Organizational of Research

How the research report is organized. The content for each chapter needs to be mentioned.

The chapter 1 in this study…

Writing Literature Review

The structure of literature review

  • An introduction which explains how your review is organised
  • Headings and subheadings that provide a map to show the various stands of your argument
  • A summary where the key arguments are reiterated in a concise way

Organisational pattern for the literature review

  • Zooming
  • Finding intersections
  • Patch working
  • Funneling

Example of a literature review structure

1.                  Introduction
·   Provide an overall idea of the studies (what are the factors and how they are linked in brief)
·   Explain the structure of the literature review
2.                  The theory (if any)
·   Explain the development of the theory (who is the first to discuss the theory and how the theory develop)
·   What is the theory all about
·   How the theory is related to the study
3.                  The main concept under study
·   Explain the dependent variable of the study:
-          Review the definition of the concept
-          Explain the development of the concept
-          Explain how the concept is important in the context of the study    
4.                  The other predicting concepts under study
·   Explain each of the independent variables in the study separately
-          Review the definition of the concept
-          Explain the development of the concept
-          Explain how the concept is linked to the dependent variable of the study
5.                  The findings from previous studies
·   Any of the previous study examines the same framework – what is the findings
·   How the findings of previous study can support all the independent variables are important in predicting the dependent variable.
6.                  Conclusion
·   Critically evaluate the existing research and the findings of previous studies
·   Explain how the review help to construct the research framework of the study

Important points to note:

  • Organize the write up according to point – not author.
  • The write up must be organize according to a proper flow – clear and easy to read
  • Proper citation must be made
  • Literature review is a documentation of previous study – not your own idea or point of view

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