Friday, February 25, 2011

Effect of human capital, motivation and supervisor support on employee career success

Effect of human capital, motivation and supervisor support on employee career success

Organizational flexibility is determined by the human resources (HR). Resources held a high capability and skills (knowledge assets) has a competitive advantage so as to win the competition. And the company will be more competitive if it treats the human resources as a partner who managed in accordance with state requirements. In the process of internal development demanded thorough changes in the pattern of human resource management within the company. Claims of employees are no longer limited to financial compensation, but leads to non-financial compensation so that the career is no longer interpreted as a certain level of position that will be achieved, but more as a psychological career is feeling proud of their achievements when someone important goal in life is achieved and not limited to job performance.

The concept of career put more emphasis on the interests and goals of employees so that employees are encouraged to be more responsible for their own careers. Employees are free to express an idea or ideas in accordance with skills and opportunities to develop themselves. Therefore, to achieve career success of employees the organization is expected to create a system of attractive and flexible career. In the theory of human capital in a rational worker makes a choice to know the investment of capital it has. Individuals make rational choices or want to invest more time, effort, and money in education, training, and experience. Here, employees weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the decision or investment, including cost and potential for appreciation and investment. Investments will result in increased awards and tops that will include increased employee salaries will achieve career success.

Based on human capital theory, workers who are more educated have more options because they have increased the human capital. The period in office and years of service in the organization is also viewed as an investment in human capital. Where the term of office and years of service in the organization longer considered to have had the expertise and gain more experience and company. Thus the organization will better appreciate the individuals who have high levels of human capital, for example, employees who have higher education levels, tenure and years of service in the organization and more training. The ability of managers to motivate, influence, guide and communicate with subordinates will determine the effectiveness of managers. Motivating is an activity that resulted, distribute, and maintain human behavior. Ml Motivation is an important subject for managers, because, by definition, managers have to work with and through others. Managers need to understand certain people behave Facebook to affect it to work in accordance with the desired organization. Individuals will be motivated to try if the hopes and efforts will increase the performance and will provide valuable results.

Interest in career planning in an organization has been known to improve efficiency and profitability growth in the organization so that it can survive in the long run, can increase the desire to use, and development of employee talent. And individual perspective, providing insight into career planning and guidance, recognition of career opportunities that would reduce the stress associated with job and career adjustment (Gray et at., 1990 in Aryee and Yaw, 1993). In addition, workers' desire for a strong increase in expectations has Realities of time and effort used to achieve career success.

Support employer is a state in which individuals receive special attention and several senior managers including the sponsor. ml indicates that subordinates who receive training and supervisor means has received support and superiors. Leader-member exchange and mentoring is a variable and the support boss Leader-member exchange is a form of quality relationships between superiors and subordinates. Emotional boss is a characteristic and a superior relationship with a subordinate (Liden, Sparrowe, and Wayne, 1997 in Wayne et al., 1999). Mentoring is a strong working relationship between senior (mentor) and junior (trained) in an organization. Employees who follow the mentoring had higher satisfaction and have the opportunity to be promoted than employees who do not follow the mentoring. Support your boss can be a force to improve the success of employees in an organization.

With the increasing choice of a variety of jobs and the demands of technology development, career success will depend on his ability to do various things in the future. The tendency of the future organization of the flat (flat) means that career success is not only considered a promotion. Besides the company also must help employees understand the development of activities that will lead to a successful career. To be successful in business competition in an ever-changing environment if there is a change, then the company must continue to develop the skills of existing workers so that is not easily left behind.

This research is a replication and study conducted by Wayne et.al (1999). According to Wayne et al. (1999) variabe1-variabe1 that could affect career success is human capital, motivation, and access to the boss or supervisor support. Understanding the factors that predict career success is a topic of interest to individuals and organizations. As more organizations encourage employees to manage their own time, the organization continues to have an interest in identifying factors that predict career success for effectively selecting and developing high-potential employees.

With the career interests of individuals and organizations, there is a need to examine the factors that affect career success. Empirical research has explained this problem by identifying the variables related to career success, such as employee demographics, human capital, motivation, influence behavior, and access to mentors. The purpose of this study was to examine simultaneously the objective and subjective career success in the same study. specifically, the relative influence and human capital, motivation and support of superiors. In achieving career success most important role is tenting career mobility system that is contest-and sponsored-mobility norm mobi1ity norm.

In the contest-mobility norm of each of its eligible employees eligible for the promotion to a higher level-sponsored mobi1iy The norm is to select employees with high skills and receive support and guidance from his superiors. Supervisor as a sponsor or supervisor to select some officials considered capable of occupying that position so that less attention to other employees or all officers to be promoted. Cognitive ability and intelligence (contest-mobi1iry norm) essential to the progress in the beginning of his career. Any employee who has no experience in the beginning of his career, cognitive ability is very useful when running career. Along with the times, a lot of standing cause business competition is more strict. Here, competition occurs not only in terms of production quality but also on recruitment.

PT. Novotel I have a big challenge to compete with other companies. Action to take is to focus on improving human resources and employee career success and a variety of sources, which is equipped with a strong organizational conditions. In recruiting employees who have and are willing to devote themselves totally to the A SCOTT I have a strategy for employees to feel the existence of a scholarship program for employees training and development, motivation and a boss who will support the careers of employees. That way employees will be developed so that this potential can be used by the company. Besides the good relationship between employees and superiors on. A SCOTT I will improve performance so that employees can be promoted to a higher level and ultimately the employees will achieve career success. Based on the background of the problem the problem of the problem in this study: What are the variables of human capital (1) whether the variables of human capital, motivation, and supervisor support had a significant influence on career success? Among the variables of human capital, motivation, and support from superiors, which has a dominant influence on career success?

REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND Hypotheses

Previous research

This research is based on earlier research conducted by Wayne et.al (1999). The survey was conducted on a large scale corporate business units located throughout the United States. The result, indicated limited support for the contest-mobility norm (human capital and motivation) and stronger support for the sponsored-mobility norm (supervisor support and mentoring) to achieve career success. In particular show of interest of support provided by the direct supervisor on the dimensions of subjective and objective career success. This study uses the same variables namely human capital, motivation, and supervisor support as independent variables and career success as the dependent variable.

Career Success

His career as a network of separate but related work, which provides continuity, order, and meaning in life. Career not only in relation to individuals who have high-status jobs or are getting faster progress, but shows a series of jobs / positions held by employees during working life regardless of job level or organizational level. Careers can also be defined as the networks and groups, and experiences relating to the work and activities that are influenced by the attitudes and behavior of individuals within the organization. So the components of the career is the attitude, behavior, and networks working on sustainable activities, activities undertaken and the beginning of the work and decided to quit his job (Noe, 2000).

New to the concept often associated with the protean career career (DT Hall, 1996 in Noe, 2000). According to Hall protean career is a career driven individual and not by the organization. Employees experiencing a change in interests, abilities, values adopted and the work environment. Each employee has a responsibility to manage their careers so that they are free to be creative in accordance with the expertise and skills that they develop themselves. Organizations must provide sufficient space for workers in developing the ability to be more productive and have greater commitment to company goals. As such the company plays a role in providing the environment and opportunities for career development.

One's career success is measured by salary and promotion. As well as the more traditional career-high position held, income earned by more and more. The point is that one's career goals related to the outcome to be achieved such as: salary, promotion, and improvement of skills. So that meant career success is the satisfaction of employees on career and salary earned and subjective selection of superiors to subordinates promotions. Indicators of career success can be viewed subjectively and objectively. The objective of salary. In the study did not measure the salary as an indicator of career success because each company has its own salary standards tailored to the financial ability and his company. A change in paradigm and a career path toward a more diverse career makes the mindset of employees to change his career goal that is more psychological lead to success. Psychological success is feeling proud of the achievements obtained by the person as an important goal in life is achieved is not limited to job performance. Psychological success depends on employees' perception of looking at his career rather than on what he has been received from companies such as salary and promotion. They do not want a status symbol but rather the flexibility of work assignments and recognition of the firm (Noe, 2000). With the increasing choice of a variety of jobs and the demands of technology development, career success will depend on the ability of workers to perform a variety in the future. They only work with one skill would risk his job.

Career Satisfaction

Employees are social beings who become primary asset for any company (Hasibuan, Malay SP., 2002). They become planners, implementers, and controllers which always plays an active role in achieving corporate goals. Employees become actors who support the achievement of goals, have thoughts, feelings and desires that could affect the attitude-his attitude toward work.

Individual's career satisfaction is a feeling of fulfillment and satisfaction with his career, which can be measured with the payment of salaries and professional development. Employees who prefer to enjoy the satisfaction of his career would prefer the job than the fringe benefits even though the remuneration is important. Measure the absolute level of satisfaction does not exist because each is different standards of individual employee satisfaction. Employee career satisfaction influenced factors such as: fringe benefits of fair and reasonable, appropriate placement in accordance with the expertise, severity of employment, work atmosphere and environment, the attitude of the leadership (Flasibuan, Malay SP., 2002).

Career success can be viewed subjectively or objectively. Objectively, career advancement can be measured by salary and promotion. Subjectively, a career is defined as an individual sense of achievement and career Based on the above definition, subjective indicators of employee satisfaction is a report of his career that includes salary increases, and professional development.

Campaign Assessment

After the employee received, issued and subsequently hired the supervisor task is to conduct employee performance appraisals. With significant achievements peni1ain subordinates and superiors attention and prompted them eager to work, so long as honest and objective assessment process and there is follow-up of employees will be encouraged to work vigorous, passionate, disciplined, and accomplished the work so the company can optimally be achieved. Follow-up assessments enables employees promoted, didemosikan, developed and / or reply to his services increased.

Assessment is an evaluation of a systematic campaign against the movement that increase the authority and responsibility of employees to a higher position in an organization so that the obligations, rights, status and income is even greater. Promotion assessment provides an important role for every employee even dream that always awaited. With the assessment promotion, it means there is trust and recognition of skills and kecekapan the employee to occupy a higher office. With the promotion which will give social status, authority, responsibility, and greater income for employees. An opportunity campaigns assessment will also encourage the withdrawal of more and more applicants who enter her application so that procurement is good for the company's employees will be easier. Conversely, if relatively little promotion assessment or not there is the morale, morale, discipline, work, and employees' performance will decrease, so that withdrawal and procurement employees increasingly difficult for the company concerned (Hasibuan, Malay SP., 2002).

Human Capital

In the theory of human capital in a rational worker rnembuat choices about investment of capital it has. Individuals make rational choices or want to invest more time, effort, and money in education, training, and experience. Workers will consider the benefits of knowing the costs and rewards to be gained.

In the contest-mobility norm, investments should be able to increase the rewards and the company includes an increase in salary. One investment is education. Based on human capital theory of education employees merely as an option, because they want to further increase its capital investment. Research dilkukan by Tharenou, Latimer, and Conroy (1994) shows that education has a positive relationship with managerial level and promotion studies (Sheridan, I 997 in Wayne et al., 1999).

Time is a series of events that have occurred or in the distant past. Left-term plan involves short, medium, and long term. Almost all managers use time and energy to make interaction with others, both from within and outside the organization. The working hours or years of service in an organization is seen as an investment in human capital. Where years of service in a relatively old organization that allows employees to receive training, develop skills and gain more experience and the new employee (Wayne et al, 1999).

Business is an activity to exert power in hopes of getting better. An organization must have an effort to encourage employees to achieve career success The employees are always working in every opportunity that exists and more effort in performing the task will produce a good performance that will produce an award from the company that ultimately the employees will be promoted. Management has one of the six elements of money (money). Here is a nominal amount of money that is used by companies to finance education, training and development. Workers will consider the benefits of knowing the cost and rewards to be gained.

Ability and human capital is an important factor in the promotion of each employee levels at the beginning of his career, but not so important when the longstanding career. They think that getting the support and the superior is more important when the longstanding career. Intelejensi important cognitive abilities and the progress in the beginning of his career so employees do not have experience in the early karimya, sponsor (boss) will be important when the longstanding career. Organization of the individuals who have a high level of human capital (eg, employees with higher education, tenure and tenure in the organization longer and more training).

Motivation

Motivating is an activity that resulted, distribute, and maintain human behavior. Motivation is an important subject for managers, because by definition, managers have to work with and through others. Managers need to understand certain people behave Facebook to affect it to work in accordance with the desired organization. People will be motivated to try if the hopes and efforts will increase the performance and will provide valuable results (Katzel] and Thompson, 1990). If workers believe that with good performance will provide intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, they will work harder in completing the given task-ugas. Expectancy theory assumes that employees allocate their behavior demands of the anticipated consequences of actions. Workers assess the information available to them and make decisions according to personal values and the possible consequences to achieve what they like. At its core is that workers are motivated to run a high level of effort if it believed the level of effort will give a good assessment. A good assessment will encourage the company to provide bonuses, raises, and promotions that will satisfy the objectives of the workers. Variables consist of career planning motivation and desire to increase or mobility.

An ambition to achieve a higher ranking has a positive relationship with career satisfaction. Employees who have a strong desire to increase the prospect that the time and effort used to achieve those goals. Flat organizational structure that provides little opportunity for employee promotions. Meanwhile, according to Herzberg if you want to motivate people in the work suggests to focus on achievement, recognition, responsibility and growth. This is a characteristic that some people are intrinsically valuable. The desire to increase the intention is a desire to achieve better results than ever before. The desire to increase and be associated with promotabilitas assessment, employee motivation is valued by the organization within the confines of the increase in salaries and viewed positively by supervisors that affects promotabilitas evaluation of employees.

Career planning model career planning is to establish, implement in career goals and strive to achieve those goals. Based on the model of psychological success, goal setting can increase the effort spent in achieving its objectives. Career planning should be followed by efforts to implement a career plan, so that career planning has a positive relationship with salary and career involvement. Mi opinion is supported by Aryee and Yaw (1993) that career planning has an indirect relationship with career satisfaction and commitment through career strategy, the process of implementing a career plan.

Career planning can be a key factor achieving career success. Therefore, planning should consider the need for flexibility, to be able to adapt to new circumstances as soon as possible. Planning must be an active, dynamic, sustainable, and creative, so management will not only react to their environment, but rather become an active participant in the business world.

Support Tops

Sponsored norm-mobi1ity are circumstances in which individuals receive special attention and several senior managers including the sponsor. They say that workers who receive support and guidance about the career of the next boss will be selected and promoted. Leader-member exchange and mentoring is a variable of supervisor support. Leader-member exchange is a form of quality relationships between superiors and subordinates. Emotional boss is a characteristic and a superior relationship with a subordinate (Liden, Sparrowe, and Wayne, I 997 in Wayne et al, 1999). Quality 1eader member high exchange involving trust, support, and interaction between superiors and subordinates (Dienesch and Liden, 1986 in Wayne et a1, 1999). Leader-member exchange theory to explain how the boss to use his power in the company to build reciprocal relationships that are different from each of his subordinates. According Graen (1975) The leader has a different behavior with each of his followers and the differences that occur must be analyzed separately. Leader-member exchange theory also called the vertical dyad linkage theory which also explains that the vertical relationships between superiors and subordinates have the relationships that have mutual influence. Bosses are not only demanding on subordinates to improve performance, but also provides decent benefits in accordance with an agreed standard. Subordinates who have leader-member exchange quality is high with his boss will give a good contribution when compared to subordinates who have a low quality with the boss (in Wayne et a1, 1999).

Mentoring is a strong working relationship between senior (mentor) and junior (trained) in an organization. Mentors are people who have experience and power which will provide advice, training, promotion, and advice in career development. Promotion of careers can occur directly through the promotion of real or indirectly through the influence and power and control the mentor to the members of the organization. Mentors are people who offer informal career guidance. Employees or mentor within the company realized that the relationship between them exists and is useful for career development. When the mentor can nominate employees for career development activities such as training programs, transfer, or promotion then he became a sponsor. A sponsor is a person in which to create career development opportunities for others.

Mentoring has a positive relationship with the need or the performance of his career, including salary and promotions (Dreher and Ash, 1990). Kram and Isabella (1985) identifies two functions of mentoring relationships and career development and psychosocial support. In career development, mentoring will provide a challenging work, training, and provide protection. Career development focusing on protege career. As part of the psycho-social support acts as a mentor protege convinced of something valuable in itself and provide guidance. Psycho-social support influence in a more personal protege, such as personal development and protege ability to have a closer emotional ties between them (in Wayne et al., 1999).

Implementation of career plans career development needs. Career development is one's personal efforts of employees to achieve a career plan. The starting point of career development starts from the employees themselves. Each person is responsible for the development or career advancement. To help employees set career goals and determine the right career path the company offers career guidance. Advisors (counselors) may only need to listen to employees' interests and providing specific job information. Advisors can also help employees to reveal their interests by conducting tests and interpret the talent and skills.

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