Sunday, October 10, 2010

University

University is building a gathering of scientific experts and scientists. The greatness of a university lies not only in the magnificent infrastructure, but also depends on scientists and intellectuals called the lecturers at the university. The terms of reference only to deliver lectures not only knowledge, but is also responsible for creating, improving and developing a science. Unlike in school, the teachers are always just struggling with the work schedule in a crowded classroom, but the university professors have a more flexible work schedules and loose (Rafaai Norhasni and Ahmad, 2008). The main terms of reference of the lecturers can be classified as:
1. controlling the lecture session (teaching)
2. research (research)
3. writing the research to be published (publication)
4. supervising students (supervision)
5. involved in professional services (professional services)

Ideally, all aspects of field work should be balanced, however, for higher education institutions that received recognition as a University Research of the University of Malaya (UM), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Universiti da Technology Malaysia (UTM) has a greater role. Lecturer in the university are encouraged to focus more on areas of research and publications. All of this capacity available in the Key Performance Indicator (KPI), a lecturer for the annual performance specifications and is also a lecturer for the purpose of promotion to higher positions. Teaching is the primary reference for each member of the academic institute of higher learning either belong to the category of Grade VK lecturer (professor), Grade DS53/54 (Associate Professor), Grade DS51/52 (senior lecturer) or Grade DS45 (Lecturer).

Lately we are not only relevant to talk of improving the quality and standards of universities in Malaysia, but we are very keen to make this country as a center of excellence for higher education in the region and the world. Thus, university management should have clear information about the role and direction of growth of higher education institutions.

Some institutions of higher learning in the world as we know it today, was built in a long time, so the birth and the personality of its own traditions that are not easily imitated Arau solved by a school other ringgit. Many social factors. tradition, freedom, and intellectual struggles that helped the growth of these institutions into centers of excellence in science.

University Research
Cabinet on 11 October 2006 has agreed to recognize the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia UKM) and Universiti Malaya (UM) as a Research University. On June 10, 2010 Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak, when presenting the Tenth Malaysia Plan (RMK-10) in the House of Representatives has announced the recognition of UTM as a research university in the fourth.
All research universities should put the innovation as a core value in all activities, including teaching and learning, research and development, writing and publishing, administration, staff and student development as well as consulting and professional services.
There are five main objectives the establishment of research universities. Among these are:
i. Improving research, development and pengkormersilan (R & D & C);
ii. increase the number of postgraduate students and post-doctoral;
iii. increase the number of lecturers with PhD;
iv. increase the number of foreign students;
v. strengthen centers of excellence, and
vi. improve the position or ranking institutions of higher learning.

(Department of Higher Education, 2010)

Hope the government for recognition that was given to the five University of the Philippines, namely UM, UKM, UPM and UTM as the USM Research University to become a stepping stone in efforts to develop strategies to enhance and strengthen the local institutions of higher learning at the international level.

Research universities need to have a robust monitoring and evaluation system. This is not an easy business, as well as expertise and experience, this system should be flexible enough and may be applicable to various forms of research. A good system should give emphasis to some of the basics, including the potential of research for public welfare and national development, the readiness of human resources specialists to conduct research quality, support infrastructure, and management of appropriate financial and fixed income research outputs - academic publishing , postgraduate students and research innovation.

Assessment and monitoring system should be the basic tool to promote and strengthen the 'research culture' and 'culture of academic excellence. " University leadership must be bold in using the system for rewards and control. For researchers and research groups that show high performance, they should be rewarded in kind, such as promotion, recognition, additional research funding. Instead, the research team showed poor performance, attention should be given to examine the weaknesses and appropriate intervention should be done immediately to improve performance.

The most significant obstacle to the success of the idea of the Research University is a system support, especially the interests of the government agencies that regulate the taking of human resources and financial support. Since the four Research Universities are public institutions, management and administration are governed by civil service procedures with the various bureaucracies that hinder control efforts and innovation.

Although the situation has improved, without the 'autonomy' through faith, leadership of research universities is not possible to carry out their duties with distinction. However, the most serious obstacles facing the country, in general, and university research in particular is that we lack a leader of the caliber of research and researchers. Since the university created the nation, we have trained many instructors (lecturers) and not the researchers. A small proportion of researchers in the university moment, created on the initiative, interest and distinctive, and often face the mines when they conduct research. Planning strategies to develop human resources research and management support systems is necessary if the vision of university research to succeed.

Career Issues Lecturer in Public Universities
In an effort to strengthen the capacity and integrity of public universities, the quality of academic staff has been enhanced by encouraging lecturers to further their studies in Ph.D. and post-doctoral level. In addition, training and relevant courses available to all staff on an ongoing basis. In addition, the ratio of lecturers to students is equivalent to international best practice, particularly in critical areas such as medicine, dentistry and pharmacy, as well as the fields of engineering and architecture.

As a statutory body, public universities are subject to the Public Service Remuneration System. Malaysian Remuneration System (SSM), which was introduced in 2002 to replace the New Remuneration System (SSB) continues to provide the terms and conditions for the best service in the public service. University Lecturer in view of the Scheme of promotion of lecturers without a permit subject to a vacancy in the office until a special grade of A (Ministry of Higher Education, 2004).

In the meantime, lecturers are also allowed to carry out consultancy work and get royalty sharing from the commercialization of research findings up to 80 percent. They also have the opportunity to continue studies at a higher level and has the opportunity to take sabbaticals to conduct research. Although lecturers are subject to the retirement age is 56 years old at the time, but in practice, a lecturer on contract are allowed to resume services until the age of 65 years. However, the scheme of service for lecturers and community colleges are dependent on vacancies and be bound by the scheme of education services at the Ministry of Education. The government also allows the university to appoint lecturers on contract (contract for service) based on expertise with the needs of a competitive remuneration for specialists and scholars of the best (the Ministry of Higher Education, 2004).

In 2006, there were over 20,000 people in public lectures. Of these, those with a PhD is 25 percent (Ministry of Higher Education, 2004). However, more than 60 percent of the lecturers at the UPM and USM have a PhD, while UiTM and other universities have recently established a number of lecturers have PhD qualifications about 20 percent. Consistent with the goal to continuously improve the quality of lecturers, the government has decided that by the year 2010.60 per cent of the number of university lecturers need to have a PhD or its equivalent. For this purpose, an allocation of RM1.2 billion has been provided under the RMK-9 to 6.300 lecturers trained at the PhD level in the university Academic Training Scheme (SLAI). However, for the year 2006, the number of scholarships are only utilizing 60 percent of the amount provided (Ministry of Higher Education, 2004).

But there are still many issues have been debated in connection with career development of public university professors. Career path of public university professors is often compared to the career paths of civil servants involved in the teaching and learning as teachers, lecturers and university lecturers. For example, in 2009 the government intends to call back many experts WHICH working abroad. Incentives will be given to encourage them to serve in the institutions of higher learning (IPTA) as announced by Higher Education Minister Datuk Seri Mohamed Khaled Nordin. The government may have many advantages in terms of strengthening the benefits of higher education institutions and to reduce wastage of human capital should be owned by the state

Table 1.1:
Percent Total Holds Ph.D. Professor of Gender and the University for 2009
Public bill PROFESSOR PROFESSOR% Total%
L P % L % P
A 1 219 111 39% 29% 330 35%
USM 2 152 27 24% 7% 179 18%
SME 3 172 86 38% 25% 258 32%
UPM 4 128 45 25% 12% 173 19%
UTM 5 145 30 28% 15% 175 24%
UUM 6 18 4 12% 4% 22 9%
IIUM 7 99 8 24% 5% 107 18%
8 UNIMAS 37 3 32% 5% 40 23%
EMS 9 17 4 12% 5% 21 9%
UPSI 10 27 8 4 23% 31% 18%
UiTM 11 85 27 23% 8% 112 16%
UDM 12 5 18% 0% 5 13%
13 USIM 23 4 34% 15% 27 28%
UMT 14 13 2 15% 5% 15 12%
15 UTHM 20 3 22% 13% 23 20%
UTeM 52 2 16 116% 102% 25% 54
17 UMP 16 2 29% 13% 18 25%
UniMAP 18 22 2 34% 18% 24 32%
GCM 19 7 47% 0% 7 41%
UPNM 20 2 2 50% 67% 4 57%
Jumlah 1259 366 28% 14% 1625 23%
Source: Higher education statistics 2009

A major objective of the establishment of research universities is to increase the number of postgraduate students and doctoral levels. Of course, these goals should be accompanied by efforts to increase the number of lecturers who have a Ph.D. However, whether the increase in the number of lecturers who have a high level of excellence that has a doctoral degree will be consistent with the development or movement of the performance of their careers? What is the upgrade of a university to research universities that will lead to an increase in the lecturers career achievement? Table 1.1 shows the overall percentage of professors found that the gender and holds a Ph.D on the university in 2009. Based on the table found the percentage of professors at research universities is still low compared with some non-research universities. UPM and USM has found the number of professors is less than 20% of the respective 19% and 18%. Somewhat surprisingly, when there is not a university-class research universities had the PhD professors who have higher qualifications. Among these are the Technical University of Malaysia (UTeM) was established in 2000 with the percentage of professors than the percentage of lecturers who have doctoral degrees is much (102%). Similarly, other universities (not rated research universities), such as Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (23%), Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (28%), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn (20%), Universiti Malaysia Pahang (25%) and the University Malaysia Perlis (32%). Here, the question has arisen about whether the advantages of university status to the academic research?

Table 1.2:
Percent Total Holds Ph.D. Associate Professor of Gender and the University in 2009
Billing Associate Professor Associate Professor IPTA Total%
L P L P
A 1 240 183 43% 29% 423 45%
USM 2 248 99 40% 7% 347 35%
SME 3 218 188 48% 25% 406 51%
UPM 4 200 124 39% 12% 324 36%
UTM 5 275 78 52% 15% 353 49%
UUM 6 76 40 49% 4% 116 47%
7 UIAM 145 46 35% 5% 191 33%
8 UNIMAS 55 19 47% 5% 74 43%
EMS 9 45 12 31% 5% 57 26%
UPSI 10 35 8 6 29% 41% 24%
UiTM 558 519 150 11% 8% 1077 153%
UDM 12 9 5 32% 0% 14 37%
13 USIM 9 7 13% 15% 16 17%
UMT 14 28 7 33% 5% 35 27%
15 UTHM 32 5 36% 13% 37 33%
UTeM February 20, 1944 16% 25% 22 42%
17 UMP 17 5 30% 13% 22 31%
UniMAP 18 33 2 52% 18% 35 47%
GCM 19 8 2 53% 0% 10 59%
UPNM 6150 20% 67% 6 86%
Jumlah 2257 1349 51% 14% 3606 51%
Source: Higher Education Statistics 2009

Similarly, Associate Professor, found a career in academic research university can be said to have been left behind when compared to some universities are not world class research university. It can be shown on Table 1.2. Based on these tables shows that the percentage of lecturers who possess a doctorate in research universities who held positions of Associate Professor was 45% (UM), 35% (USM), 51% (SME), 36% (UPM) and 49% (UPM ). While the percentage of lecturers in some other universities is 47% (UUM), 43% (UNIMAS), 153% (UK), 37% (UDM), 42% (UTeM) and 47% (Coppermine). Based on these statistics, shows that there is almost no difference on the advantages of holding the status of research university for academic careers at research universities.

This shows that the issue of academic research university career is still to be studied in depth. For example, there is the issue of promotional opportunity, research university lecturer who has served for over 20 years. There are still many lectures on DS45 grade was not appointed to a higher grade because of not having a doctorate. Career problems of the lecturers in these grades continue, while the Registrar of the university have the opportunity to better promotion during their service in public. For example, they have the opportunity to go to Grade N48, N52 and N54 are based on experience. If you see a career path of the lecturers in teacher education institutes (IPG), shows they have a better chance of salary increase to grade 44 should have a master's degree and then to grade 48, 52, and 54 are automatically increase as announced by the ministry. Similarly, the career paths of teachers in public schools. Most of them have the opportunity of a better career path to enjoy a promotion to DG44, DG48, DG52, DG54. In fact, teachers in government schools will have access to the standards of the Public Sector Committee (which at the Jusa) based on seniority and performance even though they do not do research or further their studies to pursue a Masters degree and PhD.

There is a public university in Malaysia, particularly the status of Research University of possession of a PhD was required to move to grade 52. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) has issued a circular (S) 3.6/145/2/4 vol 5 dated February 26, 2007. According to the circular was a lecturer, will be eligible to gred52 if: (a) lawfully in the office and served for three years, (b) pass the Competency Level Assessment (PTK) 3 and / or PTK4; (c) a good teaching staff, potential or achieve a reasonable level of academic excellence established and (d) the support of the Dean / Head of Department. If you checked the condition (d), found that a lecturer should achieve a reasonable level of academic excellence established. These conditions clearly indicate the need for further studies at the doctorate level as a prerequisite for the promotion of Senior Lecturer Grade DS52.

The issue of university lecturers career path coupled with the comparative career paths for teachers in public schools. For example, the issue of salary received by the Senior Lecturer in gred52 said lower when compared with the salaries of teachers in public schools. Index Based Remuneration System (SSM) issued the Public Service Department (PSD), found that there were significant differences in the salaries received by the university professors as compared to school teachers. Although the university lecturers and teachers in public schools actually in the same service classification. Classification of services is "Educational Services Scheme." They are only distinguished by symbols such as the DS, DU, DM, DG, and the DGA to distinguish the types of services are involved in education. For example, university lecturers, such as UKM and UPM will have a grade that has the initials DS. UiTM lecturers while having the initials DM. The teachers also had the initials are DG. However, classification of services is the same, namely "Scheme of Education." What is the distinguishing between Higher Education (for university lecturers) and the School of Education (for teachers). However, there are differences in the salary of public school teachers and university lecturers For example, according to the PSD circular which came into effect on 1 July 2007 has noted that teachers who are at grade DG52 as principals in the schools starting with P1T1 salary of RM4, 900.47. However, senior university lecturers who have the same grades that DS52 has a lower salary scale that is P1T1 RM4, 573.14. This issue has been debated for university lecturers and teachers of public schools in the scheme of service and the same grade of 52, but have different salary scales P1T1.

Problems are also found to be different salary scales of university staff and lecturers. For example, Universiti Sains Malaysia has offered a starting salary in the grade of Senior Lecturer P1T1 DS52 at RM4, 573.14. However, the USM has offered a starting salary P1T1 RM4, 894.91 to the staff not as a lecturer at the grade 52 S52 Islamic Affairs Officer, Librarian, S52, C52 Scientific Officer, and others. This shows that there are many difficulties and obstacles faced by the university lecturer in Malaysia compared to civil servants who have the same services as public school teachers. Length of work experience for university lecturers is not an advantage for their career path. This suggests that other factors besides the factors of experience which can affect the performance or career path, especially university lecturers are world-class research university.

Statement of problem
Studies have shown that individual factors such as self-efficacy (Bnadura, 1997, Cox & Cooper, 1997; Maurtin-Cairncross 2005; Riodan, 2007;), self-esteem (Mullen, 1994, Allen, & Day, 2006), career aspirations (Judge et al., 1995, Lyness & Thompson, 2000, Olsson and Pringle, 2004, Lortie-Lussier & Rinfret, 2005) and attitudes toward work (Lortie-Lussier & Rinfret, 2005, Ragins, Cotton, & Miller, 2000; (Briscoe, Hall, Las Heras, & Unite, 2007) can affect the career performance of an employee. There are also studies that have shown that organizational factors such as mentoring support (Lortie-Lussier & Rinfret, 2005) and training (Wolff & Moser, 2008) provided by the organization to its employees to have a positive impact on the performance of his career.

Before that, there have been studies that identified three major factors that can affect the performance of his career. But the three factors studied were only describe the performance of an individual's subjective career. These factors can be classified as individual factors, structural and behavioral. (He, 1999; Ballout, 2007). But based on previous studies didapti many more factors that may affect the performance of individuals, especially lecturers seseoarang career. Moreover. It was found that there is still lack of studies related to the performance of his career, especially the lecturers are university professors. This raised the question of how these factors can be applied in the context of the individuals designated as lecturers in public universities in Malaysia.

Most previous researchers put the subjective career performance against the performance objectives of the career (Baruch & Peiperl, 2000, Eddleston et al., 2004, Hay & Hodgkinson, 2006). This is contrary to the theory of career that can only measure the performance of his career with a monthly income and the amount of promotion for promotion (Arthur, Khapova & Wilderom, 2005). This study will attempt to prove the argument which is more accurate to measure the performance of his career a professor who not only can be measured with acceptable pay and promotion but also concerned about the number of publications, research, teaching and consultation (Ministry of Higher Education, 2004).

Therefore, the management and the lecturers should be able to identify competency-kompetenti needed to improve the performance of their careers. This is because most previous studies found that individuals who wish to improve the performance of his career, should also enhance their competence, such as career management competence, competence building a network for career development and skills in using computers (Thomson, 2005). According to them the three competencies have a positive impact on the performance of an individual's career. But in a recent study conducted by Roziah (2010) among the Diplomatic Officers of the Philippines found that there was a negative relationship between the relatively strong computer skills and performance of the officer's career. He justifies that the officer did not need computer skills to increase the performance of his career. Therefore, this study will prove whether the study conducted by his research is consistent with the performance of his career lecturer at research universities in Malaysia.

According to previous studies of personality factors (Boudreau, Boswell, & Judge, 2001) plays an important role in improving job performance, job commitment either individual or group (Mayer & Caruso, 2000; 1995.1999 Goleman, Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso 2000 and Noriah, Rahayah Siti & Syed Najmuddin 2003). Personality elements such as proactive personality and cognitive abilities (Seibert, Kraimer, & Crant, 2001), and emotional kecerdsan (Poon, 2004) can be regarded as the core of career achievement in building a quality individual or group. For the academic profession, emotional intelligence is a personality trait that should be owned by each of the lecturers and teachers to be successful in his career. Identification of emotional intelligence provides valuable information in assessing the effectiveness of the lecturers themselves, and ultimately become a catalyst towards improving the quality of human resources. There is a possibility that the lecturers are likely to have higher emotional intelligence and work commitment and organizational commitment is high, because these people know who he was, always maintain good relationships with others and try to become the best workers. Understanding what makes the most effective leaders in an organization are very important in complex work environments today. The university management must identify and develop the careers of the lecturers who have leadership potential to survive. With a limited number of studies it is necessary to conduct a study to assess the influence of personality on career achievement.

According to statistics released for the Department of Higher Education, 2009, found that there were 2.616 women lecturers who have doctoral degrees in all public universities in Malaysia. However, there are only 366 (14%) of academic staff only woman who has a doctorate from the position of Professor in 1259 (28%) male academic staff. While the position of Associate Professor was there in 1349 (14%) only female academic staff who holds a doctorate from the position of Associate Professor in 2257 (51%) male academic staff. This shows that the highest positions held by women is still small when compared with men despite having a doctorate qualification. This is consistent with the arguments set out by Ng et al., (2005), which asserts that there are differences in the performance of his career based on gender. So this review will take the initiative to identify whether the difference is due to individual factors, organizational, personality or competence of a commitment to academics.

Previous studies also showed that there was a positive relationship between commitment to career and career achievement (Simo, Enache, Leyes, & Alarcón, 2010). Almost most of the factors that influence the performance of his career are also factors that influence the commitment to a career. Therefore, this study answered the question of whether the commitment to career is variable and the mediator between the independent variable dependent variable is the performance of his career.

Therefore, this study will attempt to answer several questions: Why is there a performance difference between the careers of academic men and women workers? What are the factors that influence the career achievement and commitment to the performance of university academic staff career. What is the most important factor in influencing the career commitment and performance. The survey will run usahausaha to answer all questions raised, to cover as much as possible the knowledge gap that exists in the performance of his career in public higher education sector in Pakistan.

Research Objectives
General Objectives
In general, the study examines the factors that influence the performance of a career commitment to a career as a mediator variable for academic staff at public universities in Malaysia.

Specific Objectives
i) Identify the relationship between individual characteristics (self-efficacy, self-esteem and aspirations of a career) and the performance of his career.
ii) Mengenalpasti relationship between organizational factors (kendiri efficacy, self-esteem and aspirations of kerjaya) and kerjaya achievement.
iii) To identify the relationship between personality factors (personality proactive cognitive, and emotional intelligence) and performance career.
iv) Identify the relationship between competence factors (career management, social networking, and computer skills) and career achievement.
v) Identify the relationship between individual characteristics (self-efficacy, self-esteem and aspirations of a career) and a commitment to a career.
vi) Mengenalpasti relationship between organizational factors (kendiri efficacy, self-esteem and aspirations of kerjaya) and commitment to kerjaya.
vii) To identify the relationship between personality factors (personality proactive cognitive, and emotional intelligence) and commitment to the profession.
viii) To identify the relationship between competence factors (career management, social networking, and computer skills) and commitment to the profession.
ix) Identify the relationship between commitment to career and career achievement.
x) To identify gender differences in career achievement.

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