How can we determine that the attribute variables affect the dependent variable. Does gender affect student achievement? Does the lack of parental affection encourage students to drug addiction?
The arguments for the attribute variables can not be solved by using experimental methods. Experimental methods allow researchers to collect and manipulate the independent variables and observing the effect on the dependent variable. How can we process the independent variables to observe a gender effect on the dependent variable, while the achievement of gender has existed in a student? How can we treat the variable parents love, while love was born naturally without force?
Most of the education variable is the variable attributes. Attribute variables are variables that are inherent in the social unit before the study began. Some examples of variable attributes that are often studied is the motivation, intelligence, gender and environment students. Difficult to attribute variables analyzed and controlled. Experimental studies can not be used because we are not able to process and control the variable attributes.
Ex post facto study is suitable to study the attributes of variables. Ex post facto studies are often used to study the relationship between the variables when researchers are unable to process the independent variables. For example, we can not determine with certainty whether the variables can affect the love of their academic performance because experimental studies can not be done. What can be done is to examine the relationship between the parents love their children and academic achievement. If a significant relationship exists between love and academic achievement of their children, bolen researchers concluded that the relationship exists between loving parents and academic achievement of their children.
Because the independent variable attributes can not be processed by the investigators, researchers are not able to say causal relationship. In the above example, researchers can not say that lack of parental love and lead students to achieve academic achievement is low. We can not accurately determine whether the lack of love causes of students' academic achievement of low achieving or low academic achievement of students causing less affection from parents.