Sunday, October 10, 2010

Effect of Personality Proactive and Learning Motivation on Career Development

Effect of Personality Proactive and Learning Motivation on Career Development

Background Study
The organization currently is undergoing a transformation which involves a change in assignment and job placement. One of the severe impact of this situation is difficult to effectively carry out the work and relevant to meet the needs of their lives. If not taken seriously at the time of his career will just be status quo. The uncertainty of the attitude and career direction as a result of environmental changes that occur can lead to confusion in the course of his career by Lum, Kervin, Clark, Reid & Sirola (1998) quoting from Michaels and Spector, (1982). . For those who have careers seharusnyalah try to improve or enhance performance, and at least try to avoid deterioration.


Hall (1976) expressed faith is the career is the behaviour and individual behaviour combined with work experience and do an activity in their lives for a lifetime. Hall (2002) also states that the meaning of careers that traditionally only focused on the only professionals and organizations that have a degree and hierarchical. Now this definition is expanded to account for jobs that require individual experience and assignment-critical and challenging assignments. However in theory the individual career path that goes through several stages where it starts with the seeding (recruitment) further development (growth), maturity (maturity), the decline (decline) and in the end or retirement (retrenchment).


Career Development
Ongoing activities to improve or change careers so that the resulting set career satisfaction as career development. McDanieals and Gysbers (1992) define career development as a summary of factors psychology, sociology, information, physical, economic and desire to establish a career change for the life of the individual. Bernes and Magnusson (1996) makes the definition of career development is a process to achieve specialization in the profession and fulfill the aspirations of organizations, including the provision of career information for workers, help workers recognize the motivation of career opportunities, promote the achievement of job satisfaction and improve employee productivity.

Watts (2003) reflect an ongoing process of career development is concerned with the work and learning. As the process takes place it will determine the level and quality of these individuals about the purpose it works, benefits available, and also affects the social and economic relations with its surroundings. Watts also considers the development of technology and globalization make the organization now needs to change. The individual must be changed according to changes in the organization to remain relevant and acceptable to work with a desire to learn new skills.

Career development in the public sector also has its own importance is measured by the influence of attitudes and values of individual employees. Watts (2003) still suggest that a career in public service could be improved in three aspects. First, realize the importance of effective learning while the second is the importance of the individual is effective in the job market and the third is important for individuals to contribute to equality, justice for seizing opportunities and promoting social harmony. This way people can help others take advantage of existing and raise their aspirations to advance in career.

Relationship with proactive personality and career development.
Changes, increase or improvement in the profession is a form of career development. This form of attitude or behaviour and desire for change and is one of the proactive dimension. Bateman and Crant (1993) asserts that proactive personality is a result of restructuring actions. Crant (1995) states this is the attitude of proactive personality that can make changes to the environment without the constraints of the situation at the border and has its own strength. The study also found that individuals who will act proactively to learn of any changes because they will be able to identify and take opportunities for a change in their favor (Seibert 1999). He also pointed out that individuals who do not exhibit a proactive personality will be more reactive and can only be in the status quo in their career contacts.

Seibert, Kraimer and Crant (2001) states that studies made show proactive personality is closely linked to the attitude or behaviour of initiative, innovation and motivation to have a positive relationship with career advancement and career satisfaction. Proactive personality is related to the objective and subjective dimensions of career development include influences such as demographics, human capital, motivation, type of organization and type of activity (Seibert, Crant, & Kraimer, 1999). According to Frese and Fay (2001) referred to the behavioural attitude of the initiative of individual desire to do more ahead of the task should be to build a purpose to be achieved. They also explained the work area to complete the assignment referred to the initiative than the levels directed, aspire to achieve high resolution, beyond the obstacles and find effective solutions to improve performance. According Bardwick in his book The Trap Plateauing cited by Appelbaum and Santiago (1997) in their study said that the desire to succeed are coveted by a person will only be a liability if the horizontal career (career plateau) reached the level of the individual making too disappointed, a little contribution to the work force, there is no satisfaction in career and achievement and performance is too low.

Guidance for career development is divided into two parts. First the objectives refer to the work activity of the product or service quality of the career services office. The second is subjective, such as position, position, rank, salary and benefits. Things are more dominant on the hierarchical organization such as the security organization whose career development practice to the promotion, establishment and location. (Hall and Chandler, 2005). Grzeda (1999) says that career change is interpreted as a proactive measure to the work activity is influenced by environmental and individual grievances to the atmosphere that is not balanced on their work.

Relationships with learning motivation and career development
Economic activity has led to a proliferation of scientific knowledge and conducted a substitute activities such as installation and commodity industries has fallen (Beck 1995). The ability of individuals to explore the growing field of science education and attract more people to learn. Cappelli, Clarke and Clegg, Parker (2000) organized than rely solely on formal training and guidance from senior individuals need to build their own capacity through self learning or experience that travelled throughout the assignment or social environment. Lessons derived from the two ways the first way, when affected by the results of the work experience and activities that are done and the second through self-study (self directed learning) or an earlier action by individual motivation of knowledge (Kolb, 2001).

Hovliaras (2007) organize the direction and goals for their career path is to constantly get updates on trends, technologies and legislative changes as well as having high skills through continuing education. This proactive approach is important in career planning and career can broaden their perspectives on whether to continue existing career or switch to another career motivation, the result of lessons learned. The concept of the learning obtained in this way is the concept of independent learning (self directed learning) to be associated with motivation and proactive attitude.

Learning not only through the formal process of self learning but also includes learning groups, enrolled in institutions of learning, the discussion in the professional seminar. At this time of extended learning through journal writing, articles and academic papers are included in the Internet is a self-learning features. This learning process is also a motivational attitude get career competencies that can change the work culture and environment.

Theories suggest that the maturity level of students who get a lot of benefits from the opportunities of learning motivation in a flexible, self, and experience that are not directly related to learning needs. (Knowles, 1978). Mature students are more successful are those who know to take the opportunity to exploit their motivation to improve attitudes towards learning initiatives and producing their career development (Corno, 1993).

Problem Statement
Typically, the middle management level career will suffer the greatest impact on the decline in learning ability, skills and attitudes based on their demographic factors. (Warr and Fay, 2001). This phenomenon is causing a decline in the development and advancement of their careers so they changed to a higher step or to be able to maintain the existing situation or status quo.

Appelbaum and Santiago (1997) made a study of career development in the organization of the horizontal (plateued organization) said that his career was flat (plateued career) was when after a number of career achievements by an individual then has the same condition without any changes for a period of time. This situation arises when the prospects of limited positions and ranks, and forcing people to think the future career plans and strategies to move into other areas. The researcher also made a prediction that there will be an opportunity for a career as an executive for the 20 candidates who qualified at this time. Most executives now have reached the stage of his career, both horizontally and concern to those who raise the pressure on their career development in an organization.

At this stage there is ambiguity (ambiguity) or uncertainty (uncertainty) on the next direction his career if not supported or supervised. Individuals are not able to plan his own career if it was the ambiguity.

Figure 1.0
Figure line career development

One of the proposed opinion should have a group of middle managers to sustain or advance their careers should be able to handle this problem. Group of middle managers in an organization that used for the study are those who have had service for at least 15 years. At this stage they also had to undergo several career courses to qualify them to achieve the rank positions. Career path they have reached the stage of maturity and proper to hold office for a few years of service. In fact, many of them through 25 years of service in the same position.

If learning can change the perspective and behaviour of individuals against the needs of the organization to move forward or changing attitudes may be a matter for career development. Learning elements can be used as a foundation for change moving forward into the future. Learning can not act alone without any wish or desire of the self. Arises from the nature of that desire to change that arise from the motivation for the better. The need to increase the motivation to encourage the acquisition of knowledge which will benefit the employee performance and organizational performance. The factors mentioned above can form the behaviour and attitude towards work, which can change the perspective of career development. This determination has been made in research and pro-active and motivated to prove that having an influence on career development that affect change on the workers in the research environment. Is this determination can be applied to the local environment and to guide the formation of the right personality to avoid contributing a career in the Malaysian context. More elaborate this issue to the public and focus on the lecturer.

1.6 Importance of Study
This study was to explore and identify proactive personality and sustained motivation for individuals to be able to change the course of his career to the career of the more advanced and excellent. It also will be the agenda and preparation for their upcoming action that will achieve the level of maturity based on their demographic factors. Scientific assessment of career development has been made in Western countries. They realize the importance of maintaining a career as they face the competition is very high in his career. We have not faced a situation like in Western countries where only those who are educated, skilled and progress will be having a good job market or get a chance. This study is expected to alter the strength of proactive personality and motivation for learning can influence an individual to get out of the pomegranate decline in interest in careers in the contact work environment in Malaysia in general and particularly in public. Proactive personality is also expected to be the driving motivation to be able to fill the gaps in moral decline and the concentration of an individual who has a career maturity and experience in order not to switch career interest. This phenomenon is detrimental to the organization if they decide to quit or retire early. While the motivation was to provide greater opportunities to those who have had an academic recognition for the expanding career opportunities.


2.1 Previous Research Career Development
Schultze and Miller (2003) stated that career development is not applicable if the individual will experience depression and a decline in his career. This decline is a fact of life that must be in a period in the span of their careers. This process appears to occur with the first signs of deterioration, if not controlled will lead to a worse situation. The second stage of this decline with the overall feeling of completion and the job vacancy. The third is the feeling of emptiness will lead to the emergence of a mixed feeling of emptiness. Approach close to the true meaning of counselling and career development through activities and showed a good job and learn the experience will form a positive attitude to overcome the downturn.

Barnett and Bradley (2007) examine the relationship between organizational support of career development and job satisfaction of individuals. The study was conducted on 90 workers in various capacities in public and private sectors in Australia found that proactive personality and career management behaviour has a positive relationship with job satisfaction. Social cognitive career model based on theory (SCCT) and integrated to model the behaviour of proactive and Organisational support career development (OSCD) showed no relationship between the behaviour of career management to support the organization. This means career development depends on the attitude and behaviour of individuals is formed by SCCT.

Grzeda (1999) conducted studies on the managers and employees who were dismissed or quit voluntarily in Canada. This study aims to find the strength or personality to be there for the individual employee is able to survive or remain in their careers. The results of the examination of variables such as stress careers (career resilient) with the dimensions of the effectiveness of the self (self-efficacy) and risk-taking (risk taking) is associated with career development was found that the resistance can change the stance of individual careers who wish to quit and move on to careers other. Career resilience is the attitude or behaviour that requires changes in individual motivation in career development. Each individual changes that occur in any relevance to environmental careers proactively.

Previous Research On Learning Motivation
Major, Turner and Fletcher (2006) conduct a study to examine the relationship, proactive personality with career development activities. They also connected the 'big five' facet to the concept of development, but focuses on two variables: the proactive personality and motivation. Studies carried out on the 183rd of workers in the U.S. financial firms and found that the most significant relationship is between the strong and proactive with the personalities of development compared to other factors contained in the facet 'big five'. In addition, it also appears that the motivation was positively related to the development. In the regression was significant relationship between motivation and learning with proactive personality. Examination of the data obtained through questionnaires respondents conducted to examine the relationship and the relationship between all dimensions of the 'big five' on career development activities. The result found that motivation to be a link factor between these two variables. The findings from this study indicate that if it is applied to the career needs of individuals who have a strong personality and a desire to learn and make them more effective and relevant.

Judge and Mueller (2007) in his study are still interested in the relationship that has been going on between proactive personality with career advancement. Previous studies by researchers show that a positive relationship exists between these two variables. In fact, many researchers want to see in the contact situation and their own environment. The studies were still not shifted from examining the relationship between the five-factor model of career development. The evidence clearly when the personality to be the strongest influencing factor than the other four factors under the five-factor model.

Table 2.0
Summary of work on the issue and spotlight the gap
(A) Schultze and Miller, 2003 There are no career development will lead to depression and deterioration of individual achievement. You need a positive attitude to overcome. Gap: The need the desire to change is proactive.
(B) Barnett and Bradley 2007 career development process requires the support of the organization. If there is no support for the individual career satisfaction is not achieved. Gap: The strength of desire for change from the individuals themselves.
(C) Grzeda 1999 Career development is associated with resistance to career, personal effectiveness and risk-taking is a form of proactive personality. This could stem from a desire to quit and retire early. Gap: Must create motivation for change as well as a proactive personality.
(D) Lau and Shaffer 1999 sees the existence of the relevance of proactive personality with career progress objectively and subjectively. Proactive personality plays a big role in organizational change. Gap: Try to associate with the motivation, desire for change and a desire to learn something good.
(E) Chiaburu, Baker and Pitariu (2006) Review of the relationship between the resistance in the career of proactive personality and career development. The study found a positive relationship in which the power of proactive personality would strengthen the resilience of his career. Career resilience is the result of self-motivation. Gap: There should be motivation to change.
(F) Gutknecht 2003 Study on the desire to stop or get out of military service to see the proactive personality as determinants of the decision. Found that proactive personality to be a major factor in the decision. Lose interest and focus on results from the lack of proper attention. Gap: The changes have arisen from his own personal motivation.
(G) Veldhoven and Dorenbosch (2008): To study the relevance of age, proactive and career development. Age has a positive association with pro-active but not related to career development. Negative correlation was between age, is associated with proactive career opportunities but as the practice of HRD is included as a variable relationship turned positive. Gap: Other external factors such as organizational behaviour and management support is also considered important.
(H) Major, Turner and Fletcher's (2006): study of the relationship with the proactive personality and career development activities. Connecting the 'big five' facet of the development concept of proactive personality and motivation. Motivation was positively related to career development. Gap: This study examines the behaviour of individuals, should also take into account the environment and organizational behaviour to see the changes to occur.
(I) Judge and Mueller (2007): His study of the relationship has been going on between proactive personality with career advancement. Examining the relationship between the five factor model of career development. Gap: Personality proved to be the strongest influencing factor than the four other factors also must take into account the environment and the occurrence of this study should look at the organization where the research.

In conclusion, proactive personality is a lot of changing circumstances such as career commitment, loyalty, flexibility, creativity and initiative along with the desire for change proved to have great influence in career development. Change is not easily accessible without the individual strength of the motivation for change arises. Changes to the benefits to be learned, the motivation is essential to ensure a proactive basis. Study of proactive personality with career development has been done with so much over the past two decades. However, further studies can be made by taking other factors as mediators between the two is related tasks such as motivation, social relationships and goal setting.

Theory Framework
Dependent variable for this study is focused on the purpose of career development also implies progress in their careers. For the independent variables to study the proactive personality with the purpose of such initiatives, innovation and change. While the motivation as well as the following independent variables such as self-study mean (self-directed learning).



Figure 2
Theoretical framework for the independent variables on the dependent variable
Proactive personality and learning motivation as an independent variable will be tested on the career development of the dependent variable.

Definition of Concepts
According to Cambridge Advanced Dictionary defines career as a network service or work done in life to meet the needs of life should be continued and generate income. While the definition of development is moving and changing things to better conditions.

The definition is also proactive measures taken to bring the change but not to actions taken after the event occurred. Proactive personality is defined as the styles, feelings and behaviours related to a condition indicated that lead to change. According to the Oxford Dictionary, Indonesia is a proactive attitude to change or control the situation by taking the initiative and expects the situation to be accepted and acted in advance to overcome the situation.

The definition of motivation is the desire to learn and improve specific knowledge that arises from the self is driven by the development of training programs. Noe (1986) suggests that the willingness and ability to acquire knowledge in the areas of career training contact is a motivation if no individual motivation may be deemed to have failed to get the knowledge provided by training programs.

Hypothesis
To test and examine the relationship between the dependent variable with independent variables of this study to formulate the following hypothesis;

Ho1: There is a positive relationship between proactive personality and career development.
Ha1: There was a positive relationship between proactive personality and career development.
Ho2: There is no relationship between proactive personality and the motivation of learning.
Ha2: There is the relationship between proactive personality and the motivation of learning.
Ho3: There is a positive relationship between learning motivation and career development.
Ha3: There was a positive relationship between learning motivation and career development.
Ho4: There was no significant influence of proactive personality and motivation towards career development.
Ha4: There was significant influence of proactive personality and motivation, learning and career development.

Definition of Operations
This study used the concept of proactive personality developed by Crant and Bateman (1993) which by definition it is a passion to create the effect of changes in the individual actions that affect the environment. This concept is associated with the operation of the purposes recommended by Crant (1999) on the proactive personality with the purpose of such initiative, take action and make meaningful changes. Items for the proactive personality scale of 8 items created by Bateman and Crant (1993). The questionnaire given to respondents to answer in a way offers a choice of 1 (extremely disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) on a Likert scale.

Motivation was measured using a scale of 10 items developed Perry and Porter (1982) to strengthen the relationship between motivation and influence on career development. Respondents will be given a questionnaire containing the 5-point agreement scale from 1 (extremely disagree) to 5 (most agree). Model studies also examine the relationship between proactive personality and motivation that influence career development. There is evidence that personality factors have an influence on the development of such training. Additional examination of the relationship is also seen in the influence of proactive personality on motivation directly or indirectly.

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