Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Adult Learning

2.0 Introduction
This chapter consists of two parts. The first section discusses
some important aspects relating to adult learning, particularly
non-formal learning. Among them are the definition, purpose, form and
location, models of participation and adult learning theory. Talks
on several aspects of adult learning in the first chapter
aimed to get insights on
learning in adults. The second part shows
non-formal learning patterns based on findings from the study of
2.1 Adult Learning
What is adult learning? As the discipline of adult learning
has been developed (Thomas, 2001), especially in Western countries
(Mohd Azhar, 2004), there are various definitions of
adult learning that have been advanced by scholars in
this field. According to Merriam and Brockett (1997), the first definition
for adult learning proposed by Bryson in 1936.
Bryson (in Merriam and Brockett, 1997) says study
adults are all activities that have a purpose in the context of
study carried out in human life. Merriam
and Caffarella (1999) present a similar definition as
Bryson, saying adult learning as all business
systematically with specific goals in order to produce an adult
Brookfield (1986) also emphasize adult learning is a process
personal development to enable adults to have confidence
capabilities themselves. If the analysis proposed definition
Bryson, and Brookfield above, it can be treated as a definition
rather common that describe adult learning. Relative
with this, Darkenwald and Merriam (1982:9) put the definition of
A more detailed as follows: -
"Adult learning is a process where
someone who has the status and role
adults participating in learning activities that
effect changes in knowledge, attitudes, values and
skill. "
In addition Darkenwald and Merriam (1982), Rogers (1993:28) also
produce a comprehensive definition of adult learning, namely: -
"All of learning opportunities are planned and
a particular purpose prepared to
individuals who are recognized and to recognize their
as adults in civil society and
have left the formal education system. Opportunities
learning as there is a formal or informal
should provide guidance to adults
decision-making process, using
methodologies and approaches that are appropriate to
experience of adults to achieve the goals and
their needs. "
Although Darkenwald and Merriam and Rogers present definition
fairly comprehensive, but to Merriam and Brockett (1997) definition
The best of adult learning have been proposed by Houle at
1972. According to Houle (1972), adult learning is
planning process undertaken by individuals or agencies for
improvement or development of individual, group and overall
members of the public.
While Merriam and Brockett said the definition of learning
Houle adults raised by the best, they have also
put forward their own definition in an attempt to explain
adult learning as follows: -
"Adult Learning is designed activities
specifically for the purpose of the learning process among
those with age, social roles or
self-perception can be defined as a person
dewasa” (ms:8).
In the Malaysian context, the Mazanah and Norhayati (1997) refers
adult learning as learning opportunities that followed
by adults outside the formal school system.
There are several other terms that have the same meaning
adult learning. Use those terms to exchange
replace them with adult learning. For example, Darkenwald and
Merriam (1982) relate to the education of adult learning
extension, community education, continuing education, education
Repeated, human resource development, training and andragogy.
While Merriam and Brockett (1997) also associate learning
adults with the terms of lifelong education, permanent education and
recurrent education. The term extension education, education
advanced and widely used community education in America
Company (Merriam and Mazanah, 2001), while the rest of the education
of life, recurrent education is a term popularized by
UNESCO in the 1970's (Merriam and Brockett, 1997).
Based on the above definitions, in short, an adult learning
are all learning activities are devoted to the
adults. In this study, the use of the word learning and
educational exchange in the context of compensation for
adults, these two terms mean the same
the process of acquiring knowledge and skills among adults.
The question is whether the purpose of adult learning? The next section
discuss learning goals based on the writings of
was found in the literature.
2.2 Adult Learning Objectives
By Ruud and Preece (2005), the potential for adult learning is not
extent of literacy or basic education, but the purpose of learning
adults reaching more than that. So, what is the purpose of learning
adults? Several authors have submitted the purpose of learning
adults who show the differences between each other. Mazanah
(2001) emphasized the differences caused by the adult learning goal
and historical context of adult learning is different from one country
with other countries. For example, Rogers (1993) says the purpose of
adult learning in developing countries to meet the needs of
social and economic development. While for developed countries, the
adult learning is aimed at providing human resources
who are knowledgeable and efficient.
According to Merriam and Caffarella (1999), the purpose of adult learning
constantly changing. For example, based on adult learning
religion during the occupation in the mid-18th century in the United States
purpose of awakening the people to wake up fight
independence. Thirty years later, the adult learning
United States seeks to train workers to meet the
rapid development of technology. While the adult learning
today is to provide human resources to face
challenges of globalization and the k-economy (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999).
Although many authors have submitted goals of adult learning,
but the four goals of adult learning proposed by Titmus
(1989) is more comprehensive. The four objectives are: -
1. Educational opportunities for the second time - learning
available for adults who do not have the opportunity
for formal learning.
2. Educational role - that of learning
allows a role in the social system.
3. Vocational education - is education for
gain knowledge and skills for
employment purposes.
4. Education personal development - is learning
for individual development.
In the Malaysian context, Mazanah and Norhayati (1997) outlines
adult learning goal orientation based on the three following: -
1. Vocational orientation - providing skills and
knowledge to face challenges in the world
2. Social Orientation - Malaysia's nation building
harmonious multi-racial community.
3. The orientation of the individual - to help give birth parents,
leaders and citizens are among the best
Overall, adult learning to bring
people to change for the better in all aspects of life
humans. The purpose of adult learning are summarized by Mohd Azhar
(2004: 36) as follows: -
"Adult Learning aims to bring about change
overall positive in all fields starting
the next individual to the community in
socially, economically or politically. "
2.3 Location And Shape Adult Learning
Learning occurs throughout life (Mohd Azhar, 2004; Mazanah
and Carter, 2000, Merriam and Caffarella, 1999) in which adults
participate in learning activities in various forms and places.
The problem, in which locations for adult learning? According to
Livingstone (2000), the three main locations for adult learning is
formal learning institutions, the workplace and in society.
Consistent with the location of adult learning proposed by
Livingstone (2000) above, the three forms of adult learning
literature is produced by the most formal education, nonformal
and informal (Minnis, 2006; Mazanah, 2001, Merriam and
Caffarella, 1999, Merriam and Brockett, 1997: Coombs, et. al, 1973).
Although the study focused on non-formal learning, but
formal and informal learning are also discussed in depth
in this section to identify the differences between each other.
Although the three forms of informal adult learning, non-formal and
has long been informally introduced in many writings (such as Colley,
Hodkinson and Malcolm, 2004; Livingstone, 2000), but the interpretation of
clear to all three forms of learning is still not stable and
comprehensive. Accordingly, pendebatan of definition
formal learning, non-formal and informal still persist until
today, (Colley, 2004). Different interpretations of
the three forms of adult learning in the applicable because
implementation of adult learning programs in a variety of contexts.
In addition, no clear boundaries between formal education, nonformal
and informal (Colley, 2004) has also contributed to
different interpretations by the various essays in
adult learning (Malcolm, Hodkinson and Colley, 2003). Recognizing
the difficulty to understand the three forms of learning in
above, Tylor (2006) asserts that non-formal learning and
informal easier to understand if someone is trying to understand
first formal learning.
Based on the opinion Tylor above, then the formal learning
first discussed in the next section.
2.3.1 Formal Education
There are some authors who try to define the formal learning
These include Minnis (2006), Tylor (2006), Eraut (2004), Mohd
Azhar (2004), Malcolm (2003), Livingstone (2000) and Merriam
and Caffarella (1999). However, writing about
formal learning at the show the differences between each other
as influenced by the context of their writing. For example, Tylor
defines formal learning in general, while Eraut
provides a description of formal learning from their perspective
learning in the workplace. While Livingstone is to define
formal learning from the perspective of adult learning and education
continued. The following paragraphs present some characteristics of learning
formal than some perspective and is followed by a summary
of formal learning.
From the perspective of a rather general, Tylor (2006) outlines
some features of formal learning. Among them are structured in
hierarchy in a system operated by the institutions of education and
higher education. Minnis (2006) outlines similar to
formal education with Tylor. According to Minnis, formal learning
is a teacher-centered, bureaucratic and controlled by
government. While Livingstone (2000) see informal learning
as learning is accompanied by an adult in an institution
informal learning recognized by the government. Livingstone next
formal learning have emphasized a strong curriculum
and the award of a qualification that is recognized by
Eraut (2004) also present to explain the five characteristics
formal learning, namely: -
i. Learning framework that has been set
ii. A structured learning program
iii. Conducted by teachers appointed
iv. Qualification certificates awarded to participants
v. Has a specific end goal
In Malaysia, formal learning for adults conducted by
various institutions of higher learning, colleges and training centers (Mazanah, 2001)
whether owned by government or private. Typically, the entry
to formal learning institutions require specific academic qualifications
and through a rigorous selection process. In addition, tuition fees
somewhat higher for formal learning, especially learning
operated by private agencies. In general, the definition of
formal learning in the Malaysian context is equivalent to the definition
of several authors from Western countries such as Tylor (2006), Minnis
(2006), Eraut (2004) and Livingstone (2000).
Based on the definitions and characteristics of formal learning
submitted by the authors as discussed above,
kesimpulaannya, formal learning is learning
controlled by formal education institutions through the implementation of the program
a structured curriculum that has been drafted in advance.
In the context of research, learning in formal learning institutions
high and in the workplace more attention from the
researchers (Darkenwald and Merriam, 1982) and government (franky, 2005) for more formal learning recognition
(Merriam dan Brockett, 1997).
2.3.2 Pembelajaran Non-Formal
According to Thomas (2001), non-formal learning has a history of
long in most countries in the world. However, Thomas
explains that the term non-formal education began popularized
in the mid 1960's. Next, Thomas asserts that
emergence of non-formal learning terms resulting from the need
community to a new and different forms of learning
existing formal learning. Society requires a form of
new learning, such as non-formal learning when they see
formal learning is separate (private) and not public property
(Minnis, 2006). Accordingly, the Andersson and Andersson (2004)
think formal education is sometimes considered not significant
to specific groups when there are many obstacles and restrictions
to accompany it.
So, what is meant by non-formal learning? According to
Merriam and Brockett (2003), the definition of non-formal learning is
an issue that is still a subject of debate among educators.
The difficulty of defining precisely the non-formal learning
is because the overlap that exists between non-formal learning
with formal learning (Malcolm, 2003; Coombs,, 1973).
Although there are various definitions of non-formal learning in
literature, Merriam and Brockett considers the classical definition
submitted by Coombs, (1973) is a definition
very good and frequent references to other writers.
Coombs and Ahmed defines non-formal learning as
learning activities are systematically conducted outside of the system
formal education to provide specific knowledge to
selected groups in a population.
Base on the definition of Coombs, (1973), most authors
kemudiaannya defines non-formal learning as
learning is done outside the school system or
formal learning is characterized by a lack of implementation
structured, more flexible and responsive to the needs of the community
local (McGiveny, 2002; Stein and Imel, 2002; Mazanah, 2001;
Livingstone, 2000, Merriam and Caffarella, 1999, Merriam and Brockett,
1997). Department Statisitik Canada (2002) describes the non-formal learning
more specifically by saying non-formal learning
are all learning activities offered by the social institutions
the adult after leaving the formal school system.
Equivalent to Position opinions Canadian statistics above, Tylor (2006)
add non-formal learning is characterized by the participation
volunteers from all walks of life, the conduct in public places
by teachers who often do not receive adequate training.
While there are many authors (McGiveny, 2002, Stein and email, 2002;
Livingstone, 2000, Merriam and Caffarella, 1999, Merriam and Brockett,
1997) attempts to explain the non-formal education based on the definition
classics of Coombs and Ahmed (1973), but the framework presented
by Brennan (1997) found a comprehensive understanding of learning
non-formal education. Based on the analysis of the definition put forward by
Coombs and Ahmed (1974), Brennan submitted three elements of
non-formal education to explain the system, setting and process.
According to Brennan, non-formal learning is a system
learning is not centered (Decentralized) and unstructured.
Accordingly, non-formal learning in a different control of
a community with a community of other (Tylor, 2006). Of
element setting, the non-formal learning outside the system operated
formal education and are not supervised by the formal education system.
Non-formal learning is usually conducted in the physical infrastructure
located on the site that requires learning. In
context of the process, the teaching of non-formal learning different
with formal learning and teaching strategy which
learning should be tailored to the needs and culture
particularly with regard to students are those who dewas.
Based on the three elements of the non-formal learning as
discussed above, Brennan (1997) further proposed three forms of
non-formal learning that is complementary (complementing), and alternative
addition (supplement). Information for all three forms of learning
non-formal summarized in Figure 2.1.
Non-formal learning complements
the learning needs can not
met by formal learning
Non-formal learning is a
options other than formal learning.
Figure 2.1: The non-formal learning
In Malaysia, non-formal learning as the primary
development and social change community members (Mazanah, 2001)
equivalent to the function of non-formal learning as outlined by
Tylor (2006). In addition, non-formal education also plays a role
as a place that offers equal opportunities for learning
regardless of socio-economic status (Cain, 2002). In short,
non-formal learning is an important approach that brings
to change individuals, communities and countries.
2.3.3 Informal Learning
According Marsick and Watkins (2001), informal learning is
'Heart' of adult learning. Thus, the term learning
informal discipline has long been used in adult learning
(Eraut, 2004). Eraut further asserts the term learning
introduced informally by some philosophers of education
like John Dewey, Kurt Lewin and Merry Parker. However, as
Non-formal learning is a
In addition to formal learning.
Lessons are usually for
development of the country that can not
met by the formal system
also non-formal learning, informal learning is often terabai,
less valued and not given attention in research (Eraut, 2004)
not only in Malaysia but in many other countries (franky, 2005).
Marsick and Watkins (2001:25), defines informal learning
as learning is not classroom-based, unstructured
fully controlled and autonomous learning by students. As
autonomous learning is controlled entirely by students, then
informal learning associated with the learning direction
self (self-directed learning). Accordingly, the objectives, content, time,
methods and assessment of learning outcomes are determined entirely by students
themselves (Livingstone, 2000). One component of informal learning
learning is unintentional (accidental learning). Marsick
and Watkins defines learning as an unintentional
learning that occurs unintentionally and students often
not aware that the learning process. Informal learning
is part of a very adult learning
important for science to meet the challenges and
changing environment (Livingstone, 2000).
While Colardyn and Bjornavold (2004) defines learning
informal learning as a process resulting from activities in
the life of a person in connection with work, family and the
field. In accordance with the definitions proposed by Marsick and Watkin
(2001), and Bjornavold Colardyn further asserts that
informal learning is usually not bersruktur terms of objectives, time and
learning support. Consistent with the definition given by
Marsick and Watkins (2001), also believes Colardyn and Bjornavold
informal learning is usually not noticed and not intentional. By
, the in-formal learning does not lead to the award certificate.
Briefly dedefinisikan as any informal learning
activities that lead to the acquisition of understanding, knowledge
and skills that occur outside of formal learning institutions
and non-formal. To get a clearer picture of
differences in formal education, non-formal and informal, researchers
make an analysis on the definition above. Decision analysis
shown in Schedule 2.1.
Table 2.1: The difference between formal learning, non-formal and
Forms of Learning
Formal Non-formal Informal
Institution Location
formal learning
Social institutions Everywhere
Participation through elections
Open User self
Less Stringent and regular structures are no structures
Certification Awarded Certificate
without certificate
Without certificate
Implementation of controlled and supervised by
certain entities
Less influenced Context
by a factor
be affected
by a factor
be affected
by a factor
Escorted by
Escorted by
by student
escort by
Accidental Intentional and unintentional
2.4 Participation in Adult Learning Model
Participation in learning activities is a complex
(Ziegler and Durant, 2001). Accordingly, Ziegler and Durant
confirms many authors try to present the framework or model for
understand the participation in adult learning. In addition, the
Researchers also continue to conduct research to understand why
adults make the decision to participate in learning activities
(Tylor, in Blunt and Yang, 2002). Because participation in activities
learning is a complex, the study of
participation continues to receive attention in the field of adult education and
further education (Blunt and Yang, 2002: 299).
Because many studies have been conducted to understand the participation of
in adult learning, there are several models of participation
presented by scholars of adult learning in the literature.
According Keintz (2004), the participation of role models to predict whether
adults will participate in learning activities or not.
By Keintz (2004), models of participation are presented in
early stages of development of adult learning is a model of discipline
Boshier, Miller and Rubenson model. These models suggest
participation in adult learning is influenced by two factors
namely (1) internal factors or psychological factors, and (2) external factors
or environmental factors. Not long after, Cross (1981)
produce a more dynamic investment model called
Feedback Network Model. This model suggests the participation
learning is influenced by the attitudes and perceptions (attitudes
towards learning and self-appreciation) and environmental factors
(Access to information, barriers and family support).
According to Merriam and Caffarella (1999:243), Network Models
Feedback given by Cross (1981) is also capable of
explain the involvement of adults in learning self-direction.
After that, Darkenwald and Merriam (1982), suggests a model
entry similar to the feedback network model
Psychosocial Interaction Model named. Through these models,
Darkenwald and Merriam (1982) suggested social environmental factors
particularly socio-economic status (such as income, occupation, level of
education) and demographic characteristics (such as gender, race, marital status
and religion) is a major predictor of participation in activities
adult learning in addition to psychological factors (appreciation kendiri and
attitude towards learning). Based Psychosocial Interaction Model,
but most research on participation in learning
adults found that participation in non-formal learning is affected
by socio-demographic factors and psychology.
In addition to the three factors proposed by Darkenwald and Merriam in
above, Perin and Greenberg (in Ziegler and Durant, 2001) suggests
Another factor affecting the entry of variables
learning programs such as class size, program design and quality
program. Because this study seeks to identify patterns
non-formal education among farmers, fishermen and settlers, the
Researchers found Darkenwald Psychosocial Interaction Model and Merriam
(1982) most relevant to this study.
To understand learning in adults, the
then discuss three relevant theories of adult learning
with this study.
2.5 Adult Learning Theory
How do adults learn? If the role model of participation
explain the factors that affect participation in activities
learning, it also serves to explain the theory of learning
learning process. So, to understand the learning process in
among adults, the examination and discussion of the theory
adult learning is very important.
There are several theories that attempt to explain the learning process
adults. According to Merriam (2001), andragogy theory, theory
Self-Instruction Learning, Social Learning Theory, Theory of Socio-
Culture and transformative learning theory is one of the theories
beginning of adult learning. While the situation Cognitive Theory (Situated
Cognition Theory), Critical Theory and the Theory of Post-modernism is
learning theories described by Merriam as a new theory
for adult learning. Since the participation and learning patterns
non-formal education is strongly influenced by contextual factors (Tylor, 2006;
McGivney, 2002, Stein and email, 2002; Mazanah 2001), the theory
most relevant for discussion in this section is a theory
Social Learning and Cognitive Situation Theory and Socio-cultural theory.
Social learning theory proposed by Bandura (1977) is
one that combines elements of learning theory and cognitive
behavior. According to Bandura learning occurs through a process
observations in a social context. Based Learning Theory
Social, Blanchard and Thacker (2004) assert that learning
begins when individuals pay attention to events in
their environment. Next, Blanchard and Thacker asserts
that the stimulus from the environment is an important element of
help learning. Based on Social Learning Theory, Merriam
and Caffarella (1999) describes the context and interaction helps the process
learning in adults.
Cognitive Situation theory is a general theory to explain the process
knowledge acquisition was originally proposed by Gibson and
Vygotsky (Lave, 2004). Next Lave menejalaskan that this theory
later awakened by Brown, Collins and Duguid in
1989. Through the theory of cognitive situation, Brown, Collins and Duguid (1989)
asserts that learning occurs in adults in
a context that is influenced by culture and shared values
together in a social system. Accordingly, Brown
formulate the resulting learning through interaction and collaboration of
Socio-cultural theory has many similarities with the theory
Social Learning and Cognitive Theories situation was discussed in
above. According to Alfred (2002:5), Socio-cultural theory, the theory
learning and development put forward by Vygtosky. As
Social Learning Theory is theory and cognitive situation, socio-cultural theory
explaining participation and learning based on the concept
activity in human life occurs in a cultural context
generated by the language and social elements of the symbolic. This theory
explains that knowledge and learning related
with a social context, such as facilities, religious, cultural and
interaction between community members (Alfred, 2002). To support the theory
Socio-cultural, Perez (in Alfred, 2002) also confirmed the participation of
learning is a function of cultural identity.
Based on Socio-cultural theory, Alfred reminded the educators
adults to understand the culture and history of prior event
intends to implement effective learning programs.
Overall, the situation Koginitif Theory, Social Learning Theory
and Socio-cultural theory has much in common with each
In accordance with the perspective of the Social Learning Theory, Theory
Cognitive situation and socio-cultural theory, the conclusion of the learning
adults do not occur in a vacuum (Maznah and Carter, 2000, Merriam and
Caffarella, 1999) but occurs in a social context (Lave 2004)
are influenced by various factors such as religion, values, culture and
facilities available in the community (Lave, 2004, Merriam and
Caffarella, 1999, Merriam and Brockett, 1997). Thus, learning
the community is a community practice (community of
practice) which is formed when the members of the public practice of community
together to share knowledge, learn and apply what
Lesson learned.
2.6 Fields Pembelajaran
According to Colley (2004) and Malcolm, Hodkinson and Colley (2003)
pattern is characteristic of such learning include content, methods,
place, time allocation, goals, and learning problems.
2.6.1 Content
Based on a study by Isaac (1999) on the participation of adults
in non-formal learning activities in a number of churches in America
States found that learning content is religious, artistic
and crafts, computers, finance, language, history and health. A
More specifically, the study found that religious education is focused
to study the Bible. The findings are supported by the finding Isaac Hale
(2004) are also found in the church are learning content
related to the religious.
Mazanah and Merriam (2000) in his study of 19 respondents
more than 60 years of age in Pakistan, found the content
the learning is about health, religious and
divine, family and community. Mazanah and Merriam (2000)
that there is no guideline on what to
learned by adults for adult learning policy is
has not been fully formulated in the Philippines.
Collum (2001) in his study of non-formal learning in
black population (African American) who participated
the streets of Chicago study found that the main content
is related to survival and how to get source
Finance. While Diouf (1998) are conducting research in the country
Senegal finds non-formal learning content among
farming communities in the country is related to religious, agricultural,
health and knowledge related to professional improvement
for adult males. While the adult female,
learning content focuses on matters relating to
the family as well as religion, agriculture and health.
02.06. 2nd Place
According to Heimlich (1996), many organizations become places for
implementing non-formal learning activities in the community,
Among them are museums, zoos, science centers, aquariums. Houses of worship such as
church (Isaac 1999) and the mosque and the mosque (Abdullah, 1989, Abdullah,
1995) is also a place for learning non-formal primary education.
Next, Heimlich (1996) believes that a
education should provide learning opportunities that can be
attract the adults to participate in the learning program
recommended. From a learning aspect, McGivney (2002)
concluded that non-formal learning in the community
performed at local venues that are open to all members of society.
2.6.3 Number of Entries
Adults are individuals who are always busy (Merriam and
Caffarella, 1999) with work and various other responsibilities.
In this context, Bierema (2002:69) confirms most of the people
adults provide time for a job as a source of income. .
Therefore, the time allocated to learning are influenced by
this factor. Based on research by the Department of Statistics Canada, a number of
of respondents allocate at least six hours a week
for non-formal learning. Based on studies in Canada, Livingstone
(2000) reported a reduction in the time
provided for learning with increasing age.
2.6.4 Objectives
Studies to identify the purpose of participation in adult learning
has been started and got the attention of many researchers and
start time. According to Merriam and Caffarella (1999), studies to
identify the purpose of participation in adult learning was
triggered by Houle in 1961. However the majority of
Research focused on the purpose of participation in higher education institutions
and the workplace. Research Houle (1961) has an impact on the
very significantly to the development of inquiry to mengenalpasti
purpose of participation (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999). For example, Fujita-
STARCK (1996) described the study as a symbol of the beginning Houle
empirical studies to identify the purpose of investment. Next, Fujita-
Starck (1996) asserted Houle gave a very stimulating
great for other researchers to develop
research in this field. According to Fujita-STARCK (1996), based on
The study, Houle divided into three investment objectives
orientation, namely: (1) goal orientation, (2) orientation activities, and (3) orientation
In a study involving 330 adults who participated in activities
learning in the church, Isaac (1999) found that the purpose of participation in
learning program is to meet the demands of religion,
meet the interest for learning, social responsibility and social interaction.
While the study by Heilizer (2003) found that the purpose of participation
adult learning in the museum because of personal interest, excitement,
social interaction and responsibility to the community.
In a study of 60 adults who participated in activities
non-formal learning in China, Wang (1999) found that goal
inclusion is to perform tasks better,
improve the intellectual level, obtain employment, prepare for
face of social, health, and for promotion.
Carre (2000) in his study of 1548 participants who attended
adult education program at the French divided the investment objectives
into three main categories: to obtain efficiency, self-knowing
itself and the formation of the project.
Based on studies at three churches in the United States, Isaac (1999)
found that the purpose of participating in adult learning activities in the church
They are: -
1. to familiarize with the culture.
2. for spiritual and religious development.
3. to meet the interest in learning.
4. to be better prepared to face challenges.
5. to be with family.
6. to serve others.
Nik Hairi (1998) in his study of participation in activities
training and learning among the residents of Bandar Baru Bangi,
Selangor to see the participation of the three perspectives, namely the development
personal, career development and community development. This study
found that the purpose of inclusion in the context of personal development is;
(1) improve the quality of the self, (2) interest, (3) household needs, (4)
job preparation, (5) improve the quality of work, (6) command employer, and (7)
In the context of career development, the SFC found that six Hairi
investment objectives are: (1) improve the quality of work, (2) direction of the employer,
(3) the development of the task, (4) get new input, (5) work requirements, and
(6) improve the quality of self. These researchers further found that six
purpose of inclusion in the context of community development are: (1)
social responsibility, (2) religious duties, (3) improve the quality of
self, (4) interest, (5) work requirements, and (6) understand the community.
2.6. 5 Problems
According to Hall and Donaldson (1997), there are many previous studies
in the literature that attempts to explain learning problems. Next,
Hall and Donaldson (1997) bependapat of the earliest research
is by Johnstone and Rivera in 1965. In the study,
Johnstone and Rivera (in Hall and Donaldson, 1997) identified
two-factor or a barrier to learning is a key issue costs
from the table.
The study by Wang (1999) involving 60 respondents who participated
non-formal learning in China have three learning problems
faced by adult students are: (1) time constraints, (2)
lack of learning resources, and (3) financial problems. Hayes (1988)
in his study of 160 adults who have the ability
low literacy in the urban areas identified five factors barrier
the inclusion of low self-esteem, social barriers,
barrier situations, negative attitudes toward the class and did not give priority
to learning. In a study of 175 respondents aged
18 years or more, Beder (1990) found four main factors
preclude participation in Adult Basic Education (Adult
Basic Education, ABE) is a low perception of need
education, the perception that the participation needs attention
overall, not like the school and the obstacles the situation.
Through research using qualitative methods involving 22
teachers, Lohman (2000), mengenalpasti four issues to
informal learning in the workplace is the lack of time, resources
close study of limited, lack of rewards
learning and decision-making powers are very limited in
among school administrators. The study found a lack of time
The main problem is learning. Kui Tan Kian and
Mazanah (2001), who undertook to review the 337 members of the Institute
Kimia Malaysia (IKM) found that barriers to participation in
further education and training activities organized by the Institute of Chemistry
the constraints of family, poor quality of the program, less
support, costs, programs that are not relevant, work constraints, and lack of
priority to work related activities.
Based on previous studies as discussed above,
ringkasnyanya can be concluded that the pattern of non-formal learning
informal in nature. This is consistent with the opinion of Malcolm (2003) that
asserts that learning among adults are largely
informal, community-based (social in nature) and is influenced
by a social context.
2.7 Summary
In short, learning is a continuous process and
not limited to children but to adults reach
as adults must learn to face problems
in life. Accordingly, an adult learning
a very important form of learning today. Learning
adults occur in formal, non-formal and informal at various locations
such as higher education institutions, the workplace and in society.
Non-formal learning in the Malay community in Malaysia
recorded as early as the 14th century through the spread of Islam
When non-formal learning institutions such as mosques and prayer
established to control the religious classes. Accordingly, the
non-formal learning activities in community-based rumahrumah
places of worship such as mosques and prayer. Models of participation and
Previous studies suggest that the participation of affected
by socio-demographic factors and psychological factors.
Based on the above discussion, Table 2.2 shows a summary
literature related to the study.
Table 2.2: Summary of literature
Article Summary of Literature
Program pembelajaran yang
devoted to adult
Darkenwald than
Merriam (1982), Long
(1987), Brookfield
(1986), Rogers (1993),
Merriam dan Brockett
Education times two
Education role
Vocational Education
Education for development
Titmus (1989).
Mazanah and Norhayati
Location formal learning institutions,
workplace and society
Livingstone (2000).
Formal, non-formal and informal Minnis (2006),
Khankhow (2005),
Livingstone (2000),
Mazanah (2001),
Merriam dan Caffarella
(1999), Merriam dan
Brockett (1997), Combs (1973)
Table 2.2: Summary of Literature (continued)
Learning is implemented
outside of the education system
McGivney (2002),
Stein, Imel (2002),
Mazanah (2001),
Livingstone (2000),
Merriam dan Caffarella
Participation is influenced by
sisio-demographic factors, attitudes
towards learning and
Interaction Model
Psychosocial Darkenwald
dan Merriam (1982)
Apply learning in a
social context. He influenced
by values, culture, religion and
the ease of something
Learning Theory
Sosial (Bandura, 1977)
The theory of cognitive Situation
Socio-cultural Theory
Vygotsky (1987)
Non-formal learning is
informal, contextualise dan
Stein, Imel (2002),
Hale (2004), Isaac
(1999), then Mazanah
Merriam (2000).

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