The Hypothesis in Quantitative Research
Hypothesis is provisional recommendations for explaining the phenomenon being studied or recommended as a temporary solution. Hypothesis allows researchers to link theory with the analysis. Expectations hypothesis provides research on the relationship between variables. The evidence from analysis of the study will determine whether a hypothesis should be accepted or ignored. There is several reasons why should be established hypothesis. First, hypothesis to expectations or forecasts, while the phenomenon being studied. This explanation, while linking the phenomenon and problem solving with the body of knowledge based on facts that were available. Second, hypothesis will give the fact that the relationship can be tested directly. The existence of the relationship between the variables studied can be clearly stated and proved by the facts. Third, hypothesis can provide a guide to research for hypothesis represents a specific objective. Hypotheses to determine what to do, the type of data to be obtained, the suitability of selected facts and determine the basis of sample selection. Hypothesis can also determine the method to be used in research, statistical analysis suggests the need and associated variables to be tested. Hypothesis could also help research that is not excluded from the limitations and to prevent research from becoming blurred. Fourth, hypothesis will frame the findings and conclusions of the study report. Hypotheses could be driving the conclusions to be made to solve the problem. Hypothesis may also provide guidance on how the report should be made and disseminated.
Characteristics of Hypothesis
A hypothesis must meet certain characteristics to enable it to be accepted as a research hypothesis. Among the features are:
a. Hypotheses should be stated in simple, clear and accurate.
b. Hypothesis must be consistent with existing knowledge.
c. Hypothesis must be a power explanation. Explanation power is the ability hypothesis explains the phenomenon under study with the students, accurate and clear.
d. Hypothesis should have expected the relationship between variables.
e. Hypothesis can be tested.
Hypothesis of a research hypothesis is usually classified into directional and non-directional hypothesis. Directional hypothesis is the hypothesis that the expectations of research findings. Directional hypothesis statement made when researchers have reason to expect a certain relationship or differences exist. None-directional hypothesis is the hypothesis that does not specify the expected relationships or differences between the variables studied.
In addition to the research hypotheses, there are two other hypotheses that are used in research; the null hypothesis, which is usually marked with H0. Null hypothesis is usually stated in negative form to the expectations of research findings. Null hypotheses usually are ignored after the hypothesis testing conducted on the data.
Alternative hypothesis is usually expressed in terms of HA indicated a conflict with an empty hypothesis (H0). This is because the alternative hypothesis indicates the expected findings of research. Alternative hypothesis is a pair of null hypotheses. Alternative hypothesis is formed simultaneously with null hypothesis because the hypothesis to be accepted if the empty set aside. On the other hand, if the null hypothesis accepted, then the alternative hypothesis can not be accepted.
Operational definition can describe as a process of defining the abstract concept to something that can be measured. It is required that the researcher will be able to measure a subjective criterion that data into something that is objective and can be studied quantitatively. Opinion of the abstract, such as motivation, participation or purchase behaviour can be explained by the exercise of observation behaviour characteristics (observable characteristic behaviours). Defining the operational concept is based on a description of the characteristics that the concept can be observed.